8 The Skulls of Infants - Fontanels Figure The Skulls of Infants
9 The cranial cavity is a chamber that supports and protects the brain. The CraniumThe cranial cavity is a chamber that supports and protects the brain.Bones of the cranium are the:OccipitalParietal (2)FrontalTemporal (2)SphenoidEthmoid
32 The Orbital and Nasal Complexes Figure 6.16a The Nasal Complex
33 Paranasal SinusesAre the interconnected hollow spaces inside the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones.These spaces reduce the weight of the skull, produce mucus, and allow air to resonate for voice production.Frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, sphenoidal sinus, and the ethmoidal air cells
36 Review of the Skull 22 Bones of the Skull: 8 form the cranium: OccipitalParietal (2)FrontalTemporal (2)SphenoidEthmoid14 total facial bones:Paired bones:MaxillaePalatineNasalZygomaticLacrimalInferior nasal conchaeSingle bones:VomerMandiblePLAYThe Skull
37 The adult vertebral column has ~33 bones: The Vertebral ColumnThe adult vertebral column has ~33 bones:Vertebra (24), sacrum ( 5 fused into 1), and coccyx (3 – 5 fused into1)Performs several functions:Encloses and protects the spinal cordSupports the skullSupports the weight of the head, neck, and trunkTransfers weight to the lower limbsHelps maintain the upright position of the body
38 Divided into regions from superior to inferior: The Vertebral ColumnDivided into regions from superior to inferior:Cervical (7)Thoracic (12)Lumbar (5)Sacral (1); 5 fused vertebraeCoccygeal (1); 3–5 fused vertebrae
39 Spinal curves are weight transferring anterior and posterior curves. The spinal curves are named for the region of the vertebral column they occur in:Cervical curveThoracic curveLumbar curveSacral curvePLAYVertebral Column
43 Cervical VertebraeThere are seven total; they are the smallest, most superior vertebrae.The spinous processes: relatively stumpy; may be split, resulting in a bifid process.Have Transverse foraminaSuperior articular facet faces upInferior articular facet faces downNo rib facetsC1 and C2 special – Atlas and Axis
44 The atlas has two arches, the anterior and posterior vertebral arches. The Atlas (C1)The atlas has no body and articulates cranially with the occipital condyles.The articulations with the occipital condyles allow one to shake their head “yes”. The atlas has two arches, the anterior and posterior vertebral arches.Superior and inferior articular facets do not extend beyond the arches.
45 The Atlas (C1)Figure 6.22a,b The Atlas and Axis
46 The Axis (C2)The body of the atlas fuses with the body of the axis during development to form the dens (odontoid process).There is no intervertebral disc because of the dens.The articulation between the atlas and axis allow one to shake their head “no”.
49 There are 12 total; make up the posterior of the rib cage. Thoracic VertebraeThere are 12 total; make up the posterior of the rib cage.The bodies of the thoracic vertebrae have a heart shape.The spinous process is long and slender and points on a posterocaudal angle.The transverse processes point dorsolateral.Articulates with ribs and therefore contain extra facets.PLAYTypical Thoracic Vertebrae
51 Lumbar VertebraeThere are 5 total; the largest vertebrae, and make up the lower back region.The body of lumbar vertebrae is very thick and oval shaped.The relatively small vertebral foramen is triangular.
52 Lumbar VertebraeThe transverse processes point more laterally than the thoracic vertebrae.The spinous process resembles a tail fin of a fish; stumpy and flattened.PLAYTypical Lumbar Vertebrae
57 The Thoracic Cage Has two functions: Protects the heart, lungs, thymus, and other structures within the cavity.Serves as the attachment site for muscles involved in:RespirationPositioning the vertebral columnMovements of the pectoral girdle and upper limbPLAYAxial Skeleton