Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

HUMAN ANATOMY Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Lecture Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Frederic Martini Michael Timmons.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "HUMAN ANATOMY Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Lecture Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Frederic Martini Michael Timmons."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN ANATOMY Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Lecture Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Frederic Martini Michael Timmons Robert Tallitsch Chapter 6 The Skeletal System: Axial Division Chapter 6 Lecture

2 Introduction The axial skeleton: – skull –Vertebral column –Rib cage Sternum ribs

3 Figure 6.1a The Axial Skeleton Introduction

4 Figure 6.2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull The Skull and Associated Bone

5 Figure 6.3a The Adult Skull Sutures

6 Figure 6.3b The Adult Skull Sutures

7 Figure 6.3c The Adult Skull Sutures

8 Figure 6.18 The Skulls of Infants The Skulls of Infants - Fontanels

9 The Cranium The cranial cavity is a chamber that supports and protects the brain. Bones of the cranium are the: –Occipital –Parietal (2) –Frontal –Temporal (2) –Sphenoid –Ethmoid

10 Figure 6.6a,b The Occipital Bone Occipital Bone

11 Figure 6.3e Inferior View of Skull Occipital Bone

12 Figure 6.7 The Frontal Bone Frontal Bone

13 Figure 6.6c The Parietal Bone Parietal Bone

14 Figure 6.8 The Temporal Bone Temporal Bone

15 Figure 6.3e Inferior View of the Skull Temporal Bone

16 Figure 6.9 The Sphenoid Bone Sphenoid Bone

17 Sphenoid

18 Figure 6.10 The Ethmoid Ethmoid Bone

19 Ethmoid

20 Ethmoid in Skull

21 Figure 6.11a The Cranial Fossae The Cranial Fossae

22 Figure 6.11b The Cranial Fossae The Cranial Fossae

23 The Facial Bones The skull contains 14 total facial bones: –Paired bones: Maxillae Palatine Nasal Zygomatic Lacrimal Inferior nasal conchae –Single bones: Vomer Mandible

24 Figure 6.12a,b The Maxillae Maxillary Bones

25 Figure 6.13 The Palatine Bones The Palatine Bones

26 Figure 6.15 The Orbital Complex The orbital complex

27 Figure 6.15 The Orbital Complex The Orbital and Nasal Complexes FZLEMPS

28 Figure 6.16a,b The Nasal Complex The Inferior Nasal Conchae

29 Figure 6.16c,d The Nasal Complex The Inferior Nasal Conchae

30 Figure 6.5 Sectional View of the Skull The Vomer

31 Figure 6.14 The Mandible The Mandible

32 Figure 6.16a The Nasal Complex The Orbital and Nasal Complexes

33 Paranasal Sinuses Are the interconnected hollow spaces inside the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones. These spaces reduce the weight of the skull, produce mucus, and allow air to resonate for voice production. Frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, sphenoidal sinus, and the ethmoidal air cells

34 Paranasal Sinues

35 Figure 6.17 The Hyoid Bone The Hyoid Bone

36 PLAY The Skull 22 Bones of the Skull: – 8 form the cranium: Occipital Parietal (2) Frontal Temporal (2) Sphenoid Ethmoid Review of the Skull –14 total facial bones: Paired bones: –Maxillae –Palatine –Nasal –Zygomatic –Lacrimal –Inferior nasal conchae Single bones: –Vomer –Mandible

37 The Vertebral Column The adult vertebral column has ~33 bones: –Vertebra (24), sacrum ( 5 fused into 1), and coccyx (3 – 5 fused into1) Performs several functions: –Encloses and protects the spinal cord –Supports the skull –Supports the weight of the head, neck, and trunk –Transfers weight to the lower limbs –Helps maintain the upright position of the body

38 The Vertebral Column Divided into regions from superior to inferior: –Cervical (7) –Thoracic (12) –Lumbar (5) –Sacral (1); 5 fused vertebrae –Coccygeal (1); 3–5 fused vertebrae

39 PLAY Vertebral Column Spinal Curves Spinal curves are weight transferring anterior and posterior curves. –The spinal curves are named for the region of the vertebral column they occur in: Cervical curve Thoracic curve Lumbar curve Sacral curve

40 Figure 6.20a,b,c Vertebral Anatomy Vertebral Anatomy

41 Figure 6.20d,e Vertebral Anatomy Vertebral Anatomy

42 Intervertebral disk

43 Cervical Vertebrae There are seven total; they are the smallest, most superior vertebrae. The spinous processes: relatively stumpy; may be split, resulting in a bifid process. Have Transverse foramina Superior articular facet faces up Inferior articular facet faces down No rib facets C1 and C2 special – Atlas and Axis

44 The Atlas (C 1 ) The atlas has no body and articulates cranially with the occipital condyles. –The articulations with the occipital condyles allow one to shake their head “yes”. The atlas has two arches, the anterior and posterior vertebral arches. Superior and inferior articular facets do not extend beyond the arches.

45 Figure 6.22a,b The Atlas and Axis The Atlas (C 1 )

46 The Axis (C 2 ) The body of the atlas fuses with the body of the axis during development to form the dens (odontoid process). –There is no intervertebral disc because of the dens. The articulation between the atlas and axis allow one to shake their head “no”.

47 Figure 6.22c–f The Atlas and Axis The Axis (C 2 )

48 Cervical Vertebrae Bifid spinous Transverse foramen Superior articular facet faces superiorly

49 Typical Thoracic Vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae There are 12 total; make up the posterior of the rib cage. The bodies of the thoracic vertebrae have a heart shape. The spinous process is long and slender and points on a posterocaudal angle. The transverse processes point dorsolateral. Articulates with ribs and therefore contain extra facets. PLAY

50 Thoracic Vertebrae Facets for ribs

51 Lumbar Vertebrae There are 5 total; the largest vertebrae, and make up the lower back region. The body of lumbar vertebrae is very thick and oval shaped. The relatively small vertebral foramen is triangular.

52 PLAY Typical Lumbar Vertebrae Lumbar Vertebrae The transverse processes point more laterally than the thoracic vertebrae. The spinous process resembles a tail fin of a fish; stumpy and flattened.

53

54 Figure 6.25 The Sacrum and Coccyx Sacrum and Coccyx

55 Sacrum and coccyx

56

57 PLAY Axial Skeleton The Thoracic Cage Has two functions: –Protects the heart, lungs, thymus, and other structures within the cavity. –Serves as the attachment site for muscles involved in: Respiration Positioning the vertebral column Movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb

58

59


Download ppt "HUMAN ANATOMY Fifth Edition Chapter 1 Lecture Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Frederic Martini Michael Timmons."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google