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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 7 The Axial Skeleton PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 7 The Axial Skeleton PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings C h a p t e r 7 The Axial Skeleton PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College - North Harris Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings An Introduction to the Axial Skeleton  Structures of Bones  Articulations  Contacts with other bones  Landmarks (Bone Markings; Marks)  Areas of muscle and ligament attachment  Foramina  Openings for nerves and blood vessels

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Axial Skeleton  The axial skeleton  Forms the longitudinal axis of the body  Has 80 bones  The skull: –8 cranial bones –14 facial bones  Bones associated with the skull: –6 auditory ossicles –the hyoid bone

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Axial Skeleton  The axial skeleton  The vertebral column  24 vertebrae (singular = vertebra)  The sacrum  The coccyx  The thoracic cage  24 ribs  The sternum Peel-Away of Whole Axial Skeleton

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Axial Skeleton Figure 7–1 The Axial Skeleton.

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Axial Skeleton Figure 7–1 The Axial Skeleton.

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Axial Skeleton  Functions of the Axial Skeleton  Supports and protects organs in body cavities  Attaches to muscles of  Head, neck, and trunk  Respiration  Appendicular skeleton

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull  The skull protects  The brain  Entrances to respiratory system  Entrance to digestive system  The skull contains 22 bones  8 cranial bones:  Form the braincase or cranium  14 facial bones:  Protect and support entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts The Adult Skull

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull.

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull  Cranial Bones  Enclose the cranial cavity  Which contains the brain  And its fluids, blood vessels, nerves, and membranes  Facial Bones  Superficial facial bones  For muscle attachment  Deep facial bones  Separate the oral and nasal cavities  Form the nasal septum

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–3a The Adult Skull.

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–3b The Adult Skull.

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–3c The Adult Skull.

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–3d The Adult Skull.

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–3e The Adult Skull.

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–4a The Sectional Anatomy of the Skull.

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull Figure 7–4b The Sectional Anatomy of the Skull.

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull  Superficial Facial Bones  Maxillae = maxillary bones  Lacrimal  Nasal  Zygomatic  Mandible

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Skull  Sinuses  Cavities that decrease the weight of the skull  Lined with mucous membranes  Protect the entrances of the respiratory system  Sutures  The immovable joints of the skull

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Cranial Bones  Occipital bone  Parietal bones  Frontal bone  Temporal bones  Sphenoid  Ethmoid

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Occipital Bone  Functions of the occipital bone  Forms the posterior and inferior surfaces of the cranium  Articulations of the occipital bone  Parietal bones  Temporal bones  Sphenoid  First cervical vertebra (atlas)

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Occipital Bone  Marks of the occipital bone  Occipital condyles: articulate with neck  Foramina of the occipital bone  Foramen magnum: connects cranial and spinal cavities

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–5a The Occipital and Parietal Bones.

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Parietal Bones  Functions of the parietal bones  Forms part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium  Articulations of the parietal bones  Other parietal bone  Occipital bone  Temporal bone  Frontal bone  Sphenoid

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–5b The Occipital and Parietal Bones.

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Frontal bone  Functions of the frontal bone  Forms the anterior cranium and upper eye sockets  Contains frontal sinuses  Articulations of the frontal Bone  Parietal bone  Maxilla  Metopic suture  Ethmoid  Lacrimal bone  Zygomatic bone  Sphenoid  Nasal bone

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Frontal Bone  Marks of the frontal bone  Frontal sinuses

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–6a The Frontal Bone.

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–6b The Frontal Bone.

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Temporal Bones  Functions of the temporal bones  Part of lateral walls of cranium and zygomatic arches  Articulate with mandible  Surround and protect inner ear  Attach muscles of jaws and head  Articulations of the temporal bones  Zygomatic bone  Sphenoid  Parietal bone  Occipital bone  Mandible

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Marks of the Temporal Bones  Zygomatic process  Articulates with temporal process of zygomatic bone  Forms zygomatic arch (cheekbone)  Mastoid process  For muscle attachment  Contains mastoid air cells connected to middle ear

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Marks of the Temporal Bones  Styloid process  To attach tendons and ligaments of the hyoid, tongue, and pharynx  Petrous part  Encloses structures of the inner ear  Auditory ossicles  Three tiny bones in tympanic cavity (middle ear)  Transfer sound from tympanic membrane (eardrum) to inner ear

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–7a The Temporal Bones.

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–7b The Temporal Bones.

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–7c The Temporal Bones.

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Sphenoid  Functions of the Sphenoid  Part of the floor of the cranium  Unites cranial and facial bones  Strengthens sides of the skull  Contains sphenoidal sinuses

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Articulations of the Sphenoid  Ethmoid  Frontal bone  Occipital bone  Parietal bone  Temporal bone  Palatine bones  Zygomatic bones  Maxillae  Vomer

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Marks of the Sphenoid  Sphenoidal sinuses  On either side of the body

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–8a The Sphenoid.

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–8b The Sphenoid.

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  The Ethmoid  Functions of the ethmoid  Forms anteromedial floor of the cranium  Roof of the nasal cavity  Part of the nasal septum and medial orbital wall  Contains ethmoidal air cells (network of sinuses)

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull  Articulations of the Ethmoid  Frontal bone  Sphenoid  Nasal bone  Lacrimal bone  Palatine bone  Maxillary bones  Inferior nasal conchae  Vomer

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–9 The Ethmoid.

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Cranial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–9 The Ethmoid.

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Facial Bones  Maxillae (maxillary bones)  Nasal bones  Zygomatic bones  Lacrimal bones  Mandible

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Maxillae  Functions of the maxillae  Support upper teeth  Form inferior orbital rim  Form lateral margins of external nares  Form upper jaw and hard palate  Contain maxillary sinuses (largest sinuses)

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  Articulations of the Maxillae  Frontal bones  Ethmoid  With one another  All other facial bones except the mandible

48 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  Marks of the Maxillae  Orbital rim:protects eye and orbit  Maxillary sinuses: to lighten bone

49 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–10a The Maxillae and Palatine Bones.

50 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Nasal Bones  Functions of the nasal bones  Support the bridge of the nose  Connect to cartilages of the distal part of the nose (external nares)  Articulations of the nasal bones  With other nasal bones  Ethmoid  Frontal bones  Maxillae

51 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Zygomatic Bones  Functions of the zygomatic bones  Contribute to the rim and lateral wall of the orbit  Form part of the zygomatic arch  Articulations of the zygomatic bones  Sphenoid  Frontal bone  Temporal bones  Maxillae

52 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  Marks of the zygomatic bones  Temporal process  Meets the zygomatic process of the temporal bone

53 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Lacrimal Bones  Functions of the lacrimal bones  The smallest facial bones  Form part of the medial wall of the orbit  Articulations of the lacrimal bones  Frontal bone  Maxillae  Ethmoid

54 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–11 The Smaller Bones of the Face.

55 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Mandible  Functions of the mandible  Forms the lower jaw  Articulations of the mandible  the temporal bones

56 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull  The Hyoid Bone  Functions of the hyoid bone  Supports the larynx  Attaches muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and tongue  Articulations of the hyoid bone  Connects lesser horns to styloid processes of temporal bones

57 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–12a The Mandible and Hyoid Bone.

58 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–12b The Mandible and Hyoid Bone.

59 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Facial Bones of the Skull Figure 7–12c The Mandible and Hyoid Bone.

60 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Foramina and Fissures of the Skull

61 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Foramina and Fissures of the Skull

62 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Foramina and Fissures of the Skull

63 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Orbital Complex  Paranasal Sinuses  Air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities  Lighten skull bones  Provide mucous epithelium (flushes nasal cavities)

64

65 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fontanelles  Fontanelles (sometimes spelled fontanels)  Are areas of fibrous connective tissue (soft spots)  Cover unfused sutures in the infant skull  Allow the skull to flex during birth

66 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fontanelles Figure 7–15a The Skull of an Infant.

67 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fontanelles Figure 7–15b The Skull of an Infant.

68 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  The spine or vertebral column  Protects the spinal cord  Supports the head and body  26 bones  24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx The Vertebral Column

69 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 7–16 The Vertebral Column.

70 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  Vertebrae  The neck  Seven cervical vertebrae  The upper back  12 thoracic vertebrae  Each articulates with one or more pair of ribs  The lower back  Five lumbar vertebrae

71 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  The Sacrum and Coccyx  The fifth lumbar vertebra articulates with the sacrum  The sacrum articulates with the coccyx

72 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  Four Curvatures of the Vertebral Column  Cervical curve  Thoracic curve  Lumbar curve  Sacral curve

73 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 7–17 Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine.

74 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column  Intervertebral Discs  Are pads of fibrous cartilage  Separate the vertebral bodies  Absorb shocks

75 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Vertebral Column Figure 7–18 Vertebral Anatomy.

76 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  Vertebral Regions  Vertebrae are numbered  By region, from top (superior) to bottom(inferior)  C 1 articulates with skull, L 5 with sacrum  Vertebrae of each region  Have characteristics determined by functions

77 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  Regions of the Vertebral Column  Cervical (C)  Thoracic (T)  Lumbar (L)  Sacral (S)  Coccygeal (Co)

78 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  The Cervical Vertebrae  Small body (support only head)  C 1 (atlas) has no spinous process  All others have short spinous processes –tip of each spinous process is notched (bifid)

79 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–19 The Cervical Vertebrae.

80 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  Atlas (C 1 )  Articulates with occipital condyles of skull

81 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–19 The Cervical Vertebrae.

82 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  The Cervical Vertebrae  Axis (C 2 )  Supports the atlas  Has heavy spinous process  To attach muscles of head and neck  Axis and atlas bodies fuse during development to form the dens  Vertebra prominens (C 7 )  Transitions to thoracic vertebrae  Has a long spinous process with a broad tubercle  Has large transverse processes Rotation of Cervical Vertebrae

83 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–19 The Cervical Vertebrae.

84 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–19 The Cervical Vertebrae.

85 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  Thoracic vertebrae (T 1 –T 12 )  Have heart-shaped bodies  Larger than in C 1 –C 7  Dorsolateral surfaces of body have costal facets:  Which articulate with heads of ribs

86 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–20a The Thoracic Vertebrae.

87 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–20b The Thoracic Vertebrae.

88 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–20c The Thoracic Vertebrae.

89 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  Lumbar vertebrae (L 1 –L 5 )  Largest vertebrae  Oval-shaped bodies  Thicker bodies than T 1 –T 12

90 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–21a The Lumbar Vertebrae.

91 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–21b The Lumbar Vertebrae.

92 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–21c The Lumbar Vertebrae.

93 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions

94 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions

95 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions

96 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  The sacrum  Is curved, more in males than in females  Protects reproductive, urinary, and digestive organs  Attaches  The axial skeleton to pelvic girdle of appendicular skeleton  Broad muscles that move the thigh  The adult sacrum  Consists of five fused sacral vertebrae  Fuses between puberty and ages 25–30  Leaving transverse lines

97 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions  The coccyx  Attaches ligaments and a constricting muscle of the anus  Mature coccyx  Consists of three to five fused coccygeal vertebrae 3D Rotation of Sacrum and Coccyx

98 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Vertebral Regions Figure 7–22 The Sacrum and Coccyx.

99 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  The skeleton of the chest  Supports the thoracic cavity  Consists of: –thoracic vertebrae –ribs –sternum (breastbone)  The Rib Cage  Formed of ribs and sternum

100 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 7–23a The Thoracic Cage.

101 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 7–23b The Thoracic Cage.

102 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  Functions of the Thoracic Cage  Protects organs of the thoracic cavity  Heart, lungs, and thymus  Attaches muscles  For respiration  Of the vertebral column  Of the pectoral girdle  Of the upper limbs

103 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  Ribs  Are mobile  Can absorb shock  Functions of ribs  Rib movements (breathing): –affect width and depth of thoracic cage –changing its volume

104 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 7–24c The Ribs.

105 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  Ribs (costae)  Are 12 pairs of long, curved, flat bones  Extending from the thoracic vertebrae  Ribs are divided into two types  True ribs  False ribs

106 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  Ribs 1–7 (true ribs)  Vertebrosternal ribs  Connected to the sternum by costal cartilages  Ribs 8–12 (false ribs)  Do not attach directly to the sternum  Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 8–10)  Fuse together  Merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum  Floating or vertebral ribs (ribs 11–12)  Connect only to the vertebrae and back muscles  Have no connection with the sternum

107 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 7–23 The Thoracic Cage.

108 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 7–24a The Ribs.

109 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 7–24b The Ribs.

110 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  The sternum  A flat bone  In the midline of the thoracic wall  Three parts of the sternum  The manubrium  The sternal body  The xiphoid process

111 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  Manubrium  The superior portion of sternum  Broad, triangular shape  Articulates with clavicles (collarbones)  Articulates with cartilages of first rib pair

112 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  The sternal body  Is tongue-shaped  Attaches to the manubrium  Attaches to costal cartilages of ribs 2–7  The xiphoid process  Is the smallest part of the sternum  Attaches to the sternal body  Attaches to diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles

113 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage Figure 7–23 The Thoracic Cage.

114 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Thoracic Cage  Development of the Sternum  The developing sternal body  Consists of four unfused bones  Completes fusion about age 25  Leaving transverse lines  The xiphoid process  Is the last part of sternum to fuse  Can easily be broken away


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