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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii The Axial Skeleton

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Axial skeleton Skull Auditory ossicles and hyoid bone Vertebral column Thoracic cage Appendicular skeleton Pectoral and pelvic girdles Upper and lower limbs Skeletal system includes both:

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.1b The Axial Skeleton Figure 7.1b

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Consists of the cranium and the bones of the face The cranium encloses cranial cavity Facial bones surround and protect the entrances to the respiratory and digestive tracts The skull

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maxillary bones Mandible Palatine bones Nasal bones Vomer Facial bones Inferior nasal conchae Zygomatic bones Lacrimal bones Hyoid

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings one occipital bone foramen magnum two parietal bones one frontal bone frontal sinuses Cranial Bones two temporal bones auditory ossicles one sphenoid one ethmoid

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.2 Figure 7.2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Superficial landmarks include the sutures Lambdoid Coronal Sagittal Squamous

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.3 The Adult Skull Figure 7.3a, b

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.3 The Adult Skull – lateral view Figure 7.3c Tympanic region of temporal bone

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Paranasal Sinuses Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity Functions of paranasal sinuses: Lighten the skull Give resonance and amplification to voice

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.12 The Mandible and Hyoid Bones Figure 7.12a

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Hyoid Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The only bone that does not articulate with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongue

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.3 The Adult Skull Figure 7.3d

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.11 The Bones of the Face Figure 7.11

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.3 The Adult Skull Figure 7.3e

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.4 The Sectional Anatomy of the Skull Figure 7.4b Greater wings Lesser wing

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii The Axial Skeleton

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 7-3 The Vertebral Column

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx 7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae Sacrum and coccyx are fused vertebrae Vertebral column

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Four spinal curves Primary (accommodation) curves = thoracic and sacral Appear in fetal development / accommodate the thoracic and abdominal viscera Secondary (compensation) curves = lumbar and cervical Appear several month after birth / help shift weight from trunk to lower limbs Spinal curvature

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.16 The Vertebral Column Figure 7.16 Primary/acommodation curves Secondary,compensation curves

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Typically has a body and vertebral arch Superior and inferior articular processes Separated by intervertebral discs Vertebral anatomy

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.18 Vertebral Anatomy Figure 7.18

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structure of a Typical Vertebrae Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

27 Protects reproductive, digestive and urinary organs Articulates with pelvic girdle and fused elements of coccyx Sacrum

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.22 The Sacrum and Coccyx Figure 7.22

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Thoracic vertebrae Ribs Sternum Ribs and sternum forms the rib cage Thoracic cage

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.23 The Thoracic Cage Figure 7.23a

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.23 The Thoracic Cage Figure 7.23b

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ribs 1-7 are attached to vertebrae (“true ribs”) 8-12 are attached to the cartilage of the 7 th rib (“false ribs”) are floating ribs The ribs

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Has a head, neck, tubercle and a body Costal groove marks pathway of blood returning to the heart Typical rib

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

35 Manubrium Body Xiphoid process The Sternum consists of

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.23 The Thoracic Cage Figure 7.23


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