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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 7, part 3 The Axial Skeleton

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 7-3 The Vertebral Column

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx 7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae Sacrum and coccyx are fused vertebrae Vertebral column

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.16 The Vertebral Column Figure 7.16

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Four spinal curves Primary (accommodation) curves = thoracic and sacral Secondary (compensation) curves = lumbar and cervical Spinal curvature

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.17 Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine Figure 7.17

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Typically has a body and vertebral arch Superior and inferior articular processes Separated by intervertebral discs Vertebral anatomy

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.18 Vertebral Anatomy Figure 7.18

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cervical Has distinctive shape Large relative size of vertebral foramen Costal processes with transverse foramina Notched spinous processes Vertebral regions

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.19 The Cervical Vertebrae Figure 7.19

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Heart-shaped body Long slender spinous processes Articulations for ribs Thoracic vertebrae

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.20 The Thoracic Vertebrae Figure 7.20a

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.20 The Thoracic Vertebrae Figure 7.20b, c Animation: Axial Dissections PLAY

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most massive Least mobile Subjected to great stresses Lumbar vertebrae

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.21 The Lumbar Vertebrae Figure 7.21

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protects reproductive, digestive and urinary organs Articulates with pelvic girdle and fused elements of coccyx Sacrum

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.22 The Sacrum and Coccyx Figure 7.22

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Thoracic vertebrae Ribs Sternum Ribs and sternum forms the rib cage Thoracic cage

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.23 The Thoracic Cage Figure 7.23a

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.23 The Thoracic Cage Figure 7.23b

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ribs 1-7 are attached to vertebrae 8-12 are vertebrochondral ribs are floating ribs The ribs

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Has a head, neck, tubercle and a body Costal groove marks pathway of blood returning to the heart Typical rib

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Manubrium Body Xiphoid process The Sternum consists of

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.23 The Thoracic Cage Figure 7.23 Animation: Axial Dissections PLAY

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings You should now be familiar with: The bones of the axial skeleton and their functions. The bones of the cranium and face. The differences between adult, child and infant skulls. The curvatures of the spinal column. The vertebral regions and characteristics of each. The articulations between the thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and sternum.


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