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7-1 Lecture 6 Skeletal System:Axial Skeleton. 7-2 The Complete Skeleton Axial skeleton –Skull –Hyoid bone –Vertebral column –Thoracic (rib) cage Appendicular.

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Presentation on theme: "7-1 Lecture 6 Skeletal System:Axial Skeleton. 7-2 The Complete Skeleton Axial skeleton –Skull –Hyoid bone –Vertebral column –Thoracic (rib) cage Appendicular."— Presentation transcript:

1 7-1 Lecture 6 Skeletal System:Axial Skeleton

2 7-2 The Complete Skeleton Axial skeleton –Skull –Hyoid bone –Vertebral column –Thoracic (rib) cage Appendicular skeleton –Limbs –Girdles Fig. 7.1

3 7-3 Superior and Posterior Views of Skull or Cranium Fig. 7.5 External occipital protuberance –Ligamentum nuchae: Helps keep head erect Nuchal lines: Neck muscle attachment

4 7-4 Lateral View of Skull Temporal lines (temporalis muscle) Mandible –Condyle –Coronoid process for temporalis muscle Fig. 7.6

5 7-5 Frontal View of Skull Optic foramen (optic nerve) Lacrimal groove (tears from eye to nasal capsule) Frontal bone Parietal bone Temporal bone Sphenoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Maxilla Zygomatic bone Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Vomer Inferior nasal concha Mandible Ethmoid bone Fig. 7.4

6 7-6 Inferior View of Skull Foramen magnum Occipital condyles Jugular foramen, carotid canal Hard palate - maxilla and palatine Fig. 7.8 Maxilla Palatine bone Vomer Sphenoid bone Jugular foramen Carotid canal Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line Occipital bone External occipital protuberance External occipital crest Foramen magnum Occipital condyle Mastoid process Temporal bone Mandibular fossa Styloid process Zygomatic process of temporal bone Temporal process of zygomatic bone Hard palate Zygomatic arch Fig. 7.8

7 7-7 Hyoid Bone and Auditory Ossicles Hyoid bone –Unpaired –No direct bony attachment to skull –Attachment point for some tongue muscles –Attachment point for neck muscles that elevate larynx during speech and swallowing Auditory ossicles –Malleus, incus and stapes Fig. 7.26

8 7-8 Vertebra Parts –Body –Vertebral foramen –Vertebral arch –Superior and inferior articular processes –Transverse process –Articular facets for rib –Spinous process Fig. 7.29

9 7-9 Vertebral Column Regions –Cervical (7 vertebrae) –Thoracic (12 vertebrae) –Lumbar (5 vertebrae) –Sacral bone (1) –Coccygeal bone (1) Fig. 7.28

10 7-10 Cervical Vertebrae Atlas –First vertebra –‘yes’ motion Axis –Second vertebra –Dens or odontoid process –‘no’ motion Fig. 7.30

11 7-11 Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae Table 7.5

12 7-12 Sacrum and Coccyx Fig. 7.31

13 7-13 Review Question The spinal cord passes along the vertebral column through the _______ and enters the skull through the __________. (a)Spinous process, mandibular fossa (b)Body, occipital condyles (c)Superior and inferior articular processes, jugular foramen (d)Vertebral arch, carotid canal (e)None of the above is correct

14 7-14 Thoracic Cage and Sternum Parts –Thoracic vertebrae –Ribs (12 pair) True False –Sternum (manubrium, body) Fig. 7.32

15 7-15 Points to Remember Two major components of the human skeleton: –Axial skeleton arranged along the medial axis –Appendicular skeleton connects to the axial skeleton Skull consists of: –22 bones (single and paired) –6 auditory ossicles (3 each side) and 1 hyoid Vertebral column consists of: –Cervicals (7) –Thoracics (12) –Lumbars (5) –Sacrum (5, fused) –Coccyx (3-5, fused) Rib cage has true (bone) ribs and false (cartilage) ribs

16 7-16 Questions?


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