Presentation on theme: "23.2 Presidential Reconstruction President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan stated former Confederate states could rejoin the Union once it had written."— Presentation transcript:
23.2 Presidential Reconstruction President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan stated former Confederate states could rejoin the Union once it had written a new state constitution, Elected a new state government, and repealed its act of secession, canceled war debts and ratified the thirteenth amendment (abolished slavery). By Fall of 1865 every southern state met the requirements and the thirteenth amendment became part of the Constitution. The Freedman’s Bureau was established as a result of the passage of the thirteenth amendment and assisted former slaves by providing food, medical care, education and bargained for better wages and better working conditions. Soon black codes were enacted to counteract such organizations that helped African Americans. These black codes were created to keep African Americans from full citizenship by limiting rights, required freedmen to work (limited to farm labor), and kept freedmen at the bottom of the social order.
23.2 Presidential Reconstruction 1.Thirteenth Amendment- Abolished slavery. Johnson’s Reconstruction required former Confederate states to ratify before rejoining the Union. 2.Freedman’s Bureau- Provided food, medical care, education and helped bargain for wages and good working conditions for African Americans. 3.Black Codes- Kept African Americans from full citizenship by limiting rights, required freedmen to work (limited to farm labor), and kept freedmen at the bottom of the social order.
23.3 Congressional Reconstruction President Johnson thought that Reconstruction was finished when the Confederate states agreed to rejoin the Union. Congress was not satisfied with just allowing the southern states to rejoin the Union, these lawmakers believed that Reconstruction was not finished until freedman were granted full rights of citizenship. Congress passed the fourteenth amendment to protect the rights of African Americans, and enacted the Military Reconstruction Act. When Johnson refused to cooperate with Congress on various issues and violated the Tenure of Office Act he was impeached by Congress, but was not removed from office because Congress did not get a 2/3 majority vote it needed. Sharecropping became widely practiced throughout the South due to planters need of laborers and African Americans need of land. Sharecropping looked promising at first but lead to poverty and debt.
23.3 Congressional Reconstruction 1.Civil Rights Act of 1866- Granted Freedmen full citizenship with the same rights as white citizens. 2.Fourteenth Amendment- Declared former slaves to be citizens with full civil rights. President Johnson opposed this amendment, Congress passed it with 2/3 majority. 3.Military Reconstruction Act- Divided the South into 5 military districts governed by a general. Southerners who supported the Confederacy could not vote. 4.Johnson’s Impeachment- Johnson was charged with violating the Tenure of Office Act. A 2/3 majority was needed to remove him, he escaped impeachment by 1 vote. 5.Sharecropping- Former plantation owners rented land to freedmen. The freedman paid for the land with either cash or crops, led to a life of debt and poverty.
23.4 Southern Reconstruction The south was made up of three groups That could vote freedman, white southerners who opposed the war, and northerners who moved to the South after the war. Former Confederate supporters Were not allowed to vote. With the help of the new voters in the South U.S.Grant won the election of 1868. Grant convinced Congress to pass the 15 th Amendment. States that rejoined the Union created new state constitutions that allowed every adult male to vote. African Americans began to hold high offices. State governments passed taxes and used the money to start to rebuilding damaged roads, railways and bridges. Schools and hospitals were built. Between 1860 and 1870 taxes were raised 400%.
23.4 Southern Reconstruction 1.Fifteenth Amendment- Stated that a citizen’s right to vote could not “be denied on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude”.
23.5 End of Reconstruction Most whites in the South resented southern Reconstruction. Many blamed the South’s problems( high taxes,& misuse of public offices ) on corrupt leaders. Southerners also resented seeing former slaves holding public office. As a result terrorism groups such as the Ku Klux Klan emerged and threatened African American voters and officeholders. Congress passed laws such as the Enforcement Acts(1870 and1871) to combat such terrorist groups. The Amnesty Act of 1872 forgave former Confederates and allowed them to vote again. The election of 1876 was deadlocked with no deciding outcome for the President, the Compromise of 1877 occurred When the two parties agreed to allow Rutherford Hayes (Republican) to become President in return, Rutherford allowed southern states “the right to control their own affairs.
23.5 End of Reconstruction 1.Ku Klux Klan- Threatened African American voters and officeholders, those who did not heed their threats were beaten or murdered. 2.Enforcement Acts- Three laws that made it illegal to prevent another person from voting by bribery, force or scare tactics. 3.Amnesty Act of 1872- (Means forgiveness) Allowed most former Confederates to vote again. 4.Compromise of 1877- Rutherford B. Hayes became President and agreed to allow southern states “the right to control their own affairs”.
23.6 Reconstruction Reversed After Reconstruction, many of the schools that Freedman received education stopped receiving Funding, and many school closed. By the 1880’s Only half of all African American children Attended schools. In addition to losing education, Southern Democrats reversed the political gains made by freedmen after the war. Poll taxes and literacy tests were enacted that stopped many from voting. The South began to enact Jim Crow laws that enforced segregation of whites and blacks in the South. The tensions in the South moved to the Supreme Court in 1896 with the Plessy vs. Ferguson case. In this landmark case, Homer Plessy was arrested for refusing to obey Jim Crow laws. He took his case to the Supreme Court on the premise that such laws violated the fourteenth amendment. The Supreme Court stated “Separate But Equal” did not violate the Constitution. This decision led the way for the segregation of schools, parks, theaters, restaurants and many other facilities.
23.6 Reconstruction Reversed 1.Poll Tax- A high tax that most African Americans could not afford that had to be paid before a person could vote. 2.Literacy Tests- Showed a person could read before they could vote. It was created to prevent African Americans from voting. 3.Jim Crow Laws- Laws that enforced segregation of whites and blacks in the South. 4.Plessy vs. Ferguson- The Supreme Court stated “Separate But Equal” which led to segregation of schools, parks, theaters, restaurants and many other facilities.