2 23.2 Presidential Reconstruction President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction Planstated former Confederate states could rejoin theUnion once it had written a new state constitution,Elected a new state government, and repealed itsact of secession, canceled war debts and ratified thethirteenth amendment (abolished slavery). By Fall of1865 every southern state met the requirements andthe thirteenth amendment became part of theConstitution. The Freedman’s Bureau wasestablished as a result of the passage of thethirteenth amendment and assisted former slaves byproviding food, medical care, education andbargained for better wages and better workingconditions. Soon black codes were enacted tocounteract such organizations that helped AfricanAmericans. These black codes were created tokeep African Americans from full citizenship bylimiting rights, required freedmen to work(limited to farm labor), and kept freedmen atthe bottom of the social order.
3 23.2 Presidential Reconstruction Thirteenth Amendment- Abolished slavery. Johnson’s Reconstruction required former Confederate states to ratify before rejoining the Union.Freedman’s Bureau- Provided food, medical care, education and helped bargain for wages and good working conditions for African Americans.Black Codes- Kept African Americans from full citizenship by limiting rights, required freedmen to work (limited to farm labor), and kept freedmen at the bottom of the social order.
4 23.3 Congressional Reconstruction President Johnson thought that Reconstruction wasfinished when the Confederate states agreed torejoin the Union. Congress was not satisfied with justallowing the southern states to rejoin the Union,these lawmakers believed that Reconstruction wasnot finished until freedman were granted full rightsof citizenship. Congress passed the fourteenthamendment to protect the rights of AfricanAmericans, and enacted the Military ReconstructionAct. When Johnson refused to cooperate withCongress on various issues and violated the Tenureof Office Act he was impeached by Congress, butwas not removed from office because Congress didnot get a 2/3 majority vote it needed. Sharecroppingbecame widely practiced throughout the South dueto planters need of laborers and African Americansneed of land. Sharecropping looked promising at firstbut lead to poverty and debt.
5 23.3 Congressional Reconstruction Civil Rights Act of Granted Freedmen full citizenship with the same rights as white citizens.Fourteenth Amendment- Declared former slaves to be citizens with full civil rights. President Johnson opposed this amendment, Congress passed it with 2/3 majority.Military Reconstruction Act- Divided the South into 5 military districts governed by a general. Southerners who supported the Confederacy could not vote.Johnson’s Impeachment- Johnson was charged with violating the Tenure of Office Act. A 2/3 majority was needed to remove him, he escaped impeachment by 1 vote.Sharecropping- Former plantation owners rented land to freedmen. The freedman paid for the land with either cash or crops, led to a life of debt and poverty.
6 23.4 Southern Reconstruction The south was made up of three groupsThat could vote freedman, whitesoutherners who opposed the war, andnortherners who moved to the South afterthe war. Former Confederate supportersWere not allowed to vote. With the help ofthe new voters in the South U.S.Grant won theelection of Grant convincedCongress to pass the 15th Amendment.States that rejoined the Union created newstate constitutions that allowed every adultmale to vote. African Americans began tohold high offices. State governmentspassed taxes and used the moneyto start to rebuilding damaged roads,railways and bridges. Schools andhospitals were built. Between 1860 and1870 taxes were raised 400%.
7 23.4 Southern Reconstruction Fifteenth Amendment- Stated that a citizen’s right to vote could not “be denied on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude”.
8 23.5 End of Reconstruction Most whites in the South resented southern Reconstruction. Many blamed the South’sproblems( high taxes,& misuse of public offices )on corrupt leaders. Southerners also resentedseeing former slaves holding public office. As aresult terrorism groups such as the Ku Klux Klanemerged and threatened African Americanvoters and officeholders. Congress passed lawssuch as the Enforcement Acts(1870 and1871) tocombat such terrorist groups. The Amnesty Actof 1872 forgave former Confederates andallowed them to vote again. The election of 1876was deadlocked with no deciding outcome forthe President, the Compromise of 1877 occurredWhen the two parties agreed to allow RutherfordHayes (Republican) to become President inreturn, Rutherford allowed southern states “theright to control their own affairs.
9 23.5 End of ReconstructionKu Klux Klan- Threatened African American voters and officeholders, those who did not heed their threats were beaten or murdered.Enforcement Acts- Three laws that made it illegal to prevent another person from voting by bribery, force or scare tactics.Amnesty Act of (Means forgiveness) Allowed most former Confederates to vote again.Compromise of Rutherford B. Hayes became President and agreed to allow southern states “the right to control their own affairs”.
10 23.6 Reconstruction Reversed After Reconstruction, many of the schools thatFreedman received education stopped receivingFunding, and many school closed. By the 1880’sOnly half of all African American childrenAttended schools. In addition to losing education,Southern Democrats reversed the political gainsmade by freedmen after the war. Poll taxes andliteracy tests were enacted that stopped manyfrom voting. The South began to enact Jim Crowlaws that enforced segregation of whites andblacks in the South. The tensions in the Southmoved to the Supreme Court in with thePlessy vs. Ferguson case. In this landmark case,Homer Plessy was arrested for refusing to obeyJim Crow laws. He took his case to the SupremeCourt on the premise that such laws violated thefourteenth amendment. The Supreme Courtstated “Separate But Equal” did not violate theConstitution. This decision led the way for thesegregation of schools, parks, theaters,restaurants and many other facilities.
11 23.6 Reconstruction Reversed Poll Tax- A high tax that most African Americans could not afford that had to be paid before a person could vote.Literacy Tests- Showed a person could read before they could vote. It was created to prevent African Americans from voting.Jim Crow Laws- Laws that enforced segregation of whites and blacks in the South.Plessy vs. Ferguson- The Supreme Court stated “Separate But Equal” which led to segregation of schools, parks, theaters, restaurants and many other facilities.