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Radical Reconstruction

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1 Radical Reconstruction
Today’s LEQ: How did the government react?

2 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction
By the end of 1865, President Johnson thought Reconstruction was over – Radical Republicans felt Reconstruction had hardly begun Many in the North disagreed with the black codes

3 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction
Radical Republicans joined with more moderate lawmakers to enact two bills designed to help former slaves Extended the Freedmen’s Bureau and gave it more power Civil Rights Act of 1866 Took direct aim at the black codes All Americans were entitled to “equal benefit of all laws… enjoyed by white citizens.”

4 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction
Johnson vetoed both! Congress overrode his decision and both laws were passed Radical Reconstruction had begun

5 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction
To further protect the rights of freedmen, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution Reversed the Dred Scott Decision Guaranteed citizenship to African Americans and “equal protection of the laws”

6 Reconstruction Acts Congress laid out its plan for Reconstruction
The South was divided into five districts and put under military control Both white and black males could vote if they were loyal to the Union Each state had to write a new constitution Required to ratify the 14th amendment and allow African Americans to vote


8 President Johnson Faces Impeachment
Congress enacted two laws to keep Johnson from interfering Command of Army Act – limited president’s power as commander in chief of the army Tenure of Office Act – barred the president from firing certain federal officials without the “advice and consent” of the Senate

9 President Johnson Faces Impeachment
President Johnson is outraged and fires the Secretary of War to prove his point Johnson is charged with violating the Tenure of Office Act and just escapes impeachment by one vote!

10 Activity: Andrew Johnson is Impeached (answer on the back)
What occupation did Johnson have before he entered into politics? To what party did Johnson belong? What was the “swing around the circle”? What was the effect of the “swing around the circle”? Whom did Johnson want to help, and whom did Stevens want to help? What was the purpose of the Tenure of Office Act? Whom did Johnson fire, and whom did he appoint to replace him? How many senators must vote “guilty” before an official is removed from office? How many states had senators at that time? How did you figure that answer out? How many votes did Johnson have to spare?

11 Living Under Radical Reconstruction
White Southerners were angry! Shocked at return of federal troops Thought Reconstruction was over Black Southerners were elated! Had been organizing to fight discrimination “We simply ask that the same laws that govern white people shall govern black men.”

12 The South’s New Voters Former confederates barred from voting under Reconstruction Act of 1867

13 Freedmen The South’s New Voters
Joined Republican party (Lincoln’s party = Emancipation party)

14 The South’s New Voters Scalawags “worthless scoundrels”
White Southerners who opposed secession Joined Republican party (Democratic party = party of secession)

15 The South’s New Voters Carpetbaggers
Northerners who were attracted to the South after the war Viewed as fortune hunters

16 Election of 1868 New voters help Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, win the election of 1868 Grant’s victory helped persuade Congress to pass the Fifteenth Amendment African Americans win the right to vote “the right of citizens… to vote shall not be denied or abridged [limited] by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

17 Rebuilding the South Every state readmitted into the Union by 1870
Wrote new constitutions and formed new governments Majority of those elected into office were Republican – 1/5 were African American Established the South’s first public school system

18 Slow Economic Recovery
Corrupt government officials used money intended to rebuild Southern infrastructure for personal gain Most of the South still dependent on agriculture Many Southern farmers lost all they had to war costs

19 Slow Economic Recovery
Once-wealthy plantation owners had land but no money to hire workers Tenant Farming - planters divided land into small plots they rented to workers who would grow crops In some cases, tenant farmers would pay a share of their crop as rent instead of cash – this was called Sharecropping

20 Who Benefited? “We make as much cotton and sugar as we did when we were slaves and it does us little good now as it did then.”

21 In Summary… Congress takes control of Reconstruction in 1867.
Federal troops oversee establishment of state governments in the South The first biracial state governments establish a public school system. Economic recovery is slow for the South.

22 Reconstruction Amendments Foldable
Some important vocabulary: Amendment:        a change or addition (to the United States Constitution) Jurisdiction:        power, authority; authority over an area Naturalized:        granted citizenship Reconstruction:    era of rebuilding (in the US, ) Servitude:        state of being a slave

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