Presentation on theme: "Radical Reconstruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Radical Reconstruction Today’s LEQ:How did the government react?
2 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction By the end of 1865, President Johnson thought Reconstruction was over – Radical Republicans felt Reconstruction had hardly begunMany in the North disagreed with the black codes
3 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction Radical Republicans joined with more moderate lawmakers to enact two bills designed to help former slavesExtended the Freedmen’s Bureau and gave it more powerCivil Rights Act of 1866Took direct aim at the black codesAll Americans were entitled to “equal benefit of all laws… enjoyed by white citizens.”
4 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction Johnson vetoed both!Congress overrode his decision and both laws were passedRadical Reconstruction had begun
5 Radical Republicans Challenge Johnson’s Reconstruction To further protect the rights of freedmen, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment to the ConstitutionReversed the Dred Scott DecisionGuaranteed citizenship to African Americans and “equal protection of the laws”
6 Reconstruction Acts Congress laid out its plan for Reconstruction The South was divided into five districts and put under military controlBoth white and black males could vote if they were loyal to the UnionEach state had to write a new constitutionRequired to ratify the 14th amendment and allow African Americans to vote
8 President Johnson Faces Impeachment Congress enacted two laws to keep Johnson from interferingCommand of Army Act – limited president’s power as commander in chief of the armyTenure of Office Act – barred the president from firing certain federal officials without the “advice and consent” of the Senate
9 President Johnson Faces Impeachment President Johnson is outraged and fires the Secretary of War to prove his pointJohnson is charged with violating the Tenure of Office Act and just escapes impeachment by one vote!
10 Activity: Andrew Johnson is Impeached (answer on the back) What occupation did Johnson have before he entered into politics?To what party did Johnson belong?What was the “swing around the circle”?What was the effect of the “swing around the circle”?Whom did Johnson want to help, and whom did Stevens want to help?What was the purpose of the Tenure of Office Act?Whom did Johnson fire, and whom did he appoint to replace him?How many senators must vote “guilty” before an official is removed from office?How many states had senators at that time? How did you figure that answer out?How many votes did Johnson have to spare?
11 Living Under Radical Reconstruction White Southerners were angry!Shocked at return of federal troopsThought Reconstruction was overBlack Southerners were elated!Had been organizing to fight discrimination“We simply ask that the same laws that govern white people shall govern black men.”
12 The South’s New VotersFormer confederates barred from voting under Reconstruction Act of 1867
13 Freedmen The South’s New Voters Joined Republican party (Lincoln’s party = Emancipation party)
14 The South’s New Voters Scalawags “worthless scoundrels” White Southerners who opposed secessionJoined Republican party(Democratic party = party of secession)
15 The South’s New Voters Carpetbaggers Northerners who were attracted to the South after the warViewed as fortune hunters
16 Election of 1868New voters help Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, win the election of 1868Grant’s victory helped persuade Congress to pass the Fifteenth AmendmentAfrican Americans win the right to vote“the right of citizens… to vote shall not be denied or abridged [limited] by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
17 Rebuilding the South Every state readmitted into the Union by 1870 Wrote new constitutions and formed new governmentsMajority of those elected into office were Republican – 1/5 were African AmericanEstablished the South’s first public school system
18 Slow Economic Recovery Corrupt government officials used money intended to rebuild Southern infrastructure for personal gainMost of the South still dependent on agricultureMany Southern farmers lost all they had to war costs
19 Slow Economic Recovery Once-wealthy plantation owners had land but no money to hire workersTenant Farming - planters divided land into small plots they rented to workers who would grow cropsIn some cases, tenant farmers would pay a share of their crop as rent instead of cash – this was called Sharecropping
20 Who Benefited?“We make as much cotton and sugar as we did when we were slaves and it does us little good now as it did then.”
21 In Summary… Congress takes control of Reconstruction in 1867. Federal troops oversee establishment of state governments in the SouthThe first biracial state governments establish a public school system.Economic recovery is slow for the South.
22 Reconstruction Amendments Foldable Some important vocabulary:Amendment: a change or addition (to the United States Constitution) Jurisdiction: power, authority; authority over an area Naturalized: granted citizenship Reconstruction: era of rebuilding (in the US, ) Servitude: state of being a slave