Presentation on theme: "Themes: An overwhelmingly rural society"— Presentation transcript:
1Themes: 1877-1898 An overwhelmingly rural society A largely absent Federal governmentRise of corporate capitalismSavage boom and bust cyclesUtopian social movements, constantly thwarted by:Political and social fragmentationEnormous ethnic complexity/cultural isolation, and racismThe economic instability of the periodAfter the election of 1896, utopianism replaced by progressivism
2What does “freedom” mean now? Newly free family in Richmond, Virginia, circa 1865For African Americans:Access to landAccess to the voteAccess to educationFor white Southerners:Freedom from the Federal government“States rights”
3Lincoln’s 10 percent plan General amnesty to white southerners who pledged an oath of loyalty to the government and to the elimination of slaveryWhen 10 percent took the oath in a given state, they could set up a state government
4Andrew Johnson plan Loyalty oath Governor invokes constitutional conventionState becomes repatriated if it abolishes slavery, revokes secession, and repudiates its confederate war debts
5Civil Rights Act of 1866 14th Amendment, ratified 1868 Declared blacks citizens of the United StatesGave the Federal government power to intervene in southern state affairsGave Freedmen’s Bureau the power to open special courts to nullify the black codesFirst constitutional definition of citizenshipGave individuals “equal protection of the laws”Reduction of representatives to any state that denied men the suffrage
6Radical Reconstruction South transformed into five military districtsMilitary commanders could register all qualified male voters who had not participated in the rebellion.State constitutional conventions had to include black suffrageState legislatures had to approve the 14th amendment.
7The 15th Amendment, 1869Forbade states to deny suffrage on basis of “race, color, or previous condition and servitude”Made this a requirement for last states applying for repatriation: Mississippi, Virginia and TexasAll southern states had to pass 15th amendment to return to the Union
8Andrew Johnson escapes conviction of the articles of impeachment, 1868
9The Freedman’s BureauFederal employment agency, banking system, legal advocacy agency, medical service, and, for a little while, a land agency for African Americans
10The Credit Mobiler Scandal, 1867-1872 Union Pacific railroad board of directors hires and pays itself to build the Union Pacific railroad at exorbitant pricesPays off members of Congress to keep quietPresident Ulysses S. Grant
11Colfax massacre, 187340 African-American farmers murdered in LouisianaFederal government indicts 98 men of violating the 14th amendmentSupreme Court overthows convictions in Cruikshank vs. United StatesRemoving the dead after the Colfax massacre
12The Stolen Election of 1876 Hayes’ corrupt bargain: “Rutherfraud” B. HayesHayes’ corrupt bargain:South will support him if he withdraws Federal troops.
13Electoral crisis of 1876 and 1877 Four contested statesOne electoral commissionOregonLouisianaSouth CarolinaFlorida19 electoral votes in disputeFive U.S. SenatorsFive House RepresentativesFive Supreme Court Justices(7 Democrats; 7 Republicans; 1 independent)
141890 - a class divided society Wealthiest 1 percent of families in 1890 owned 51 percent of all real estate, personal property, and $$$$.The 44 percent least wealthy owned 1.2 percent of all property.Wealthy and better off own about 86 percent of all wealth
15Two visions of America Identity of interest: Basic harmony exists between capital and laborThe free market benefits allLaws helping poor damned as “class legislation “Conflict of interest:U.S. society essentially out of jointU.S. on the way to developing an aristocracyGovernment needed to take active steps to prevent this . . .
16The Knights of Labor emphasized alternatives to the wage system created diverse assemblies of workers not based on their craft
17The Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 Congressional response to the Workingmen’s Party of CaliforniaProhibited most Chinese from immigrating to the United StatesExceptions: wives of men already in the U.S.; teachers, students, and merchantsChinese-American population halved by 1920
18Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886)Yick Wo was denied a permit to operate a laundry in San Francisco (while white operators received permits).U.S. Supreme Court declared that the application of a statute as well as the statute itself must not be discriminatoryYick Wo Elementary School, SFDeclared City of San Francisco in violation of the 14th amendmentCase later cited in Texas v. Hernandez (1954)