2 THE BASICS – WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT RECONSTRUCTION What economic, social, and political reconstruction wereThe role of the Freedmen’s BureauThe difference between Presidential and Congressional reconstructionThe 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. ConstitutionThe role of Henry McNeal Turner and the Black legislatorsThe rise of the Ku Klux Klan
3 Economic Reconstruction After the Civil War, economic problems were in 3 categories: land, labor, capital.The one positive about Georgia’s economy was that there was a world-wide shortage of cotton, so cotton prices were very high.Complete the Economics worksheet for details on land, labor, and capital issues.
4 Sharecroppers & Tenant Farmers Because slaves had been freed and land owners had little money to pay farm help, many men became sharecroppers or tenant farmers.Sharecroppers are provided a home and tools to work the land, they pay the owner a part or “share” of the crop.Tenant farmers live and work on the landowners land, but pay rent and provide their own tools.
5 Social Reconstruction Some Northern banks and businessmen began investing in the South.With money came carpetbaggers – Northerners who came South to take advantage of the problems in the South.Worse than them were the scalawags – Southerners who worked with the carpetbaggers. They were considered traitors.
6 Freedmen’s BureauThe Freedmen’s Bureau was a federal government agency that brought food, clothing, food, fuel, and other supplies to help both whites and blacks after the war.It quickly changed to only help freed slaves.It set up schools for black children and adults, helped them establish churches, and helped them make fair contracts with people who hired them.
7 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction was to bring the southern states back into the Union quickly.After Lincoln was assassinated Andrew Johnson became president and decided to carry out Lincoln’s plan.Radical Republicans in Congress felt Lincoln’s plan did not punish the South and Johnson was impeached. (complete comparison graphic organizer)
8 14th AmendmentGeorgia ratified the 13th amendment, but the State legislature passed “Black Codes” which were laws that limited the rights of former slaves in the state.The U.S. Congress passed the 14th amendment in response to the Black Codes, which protected them as citizens.Georgia refused to ratify the 14th amendment and was placed under military occupation.
9 Congressional Reconstruction Radical Republicans impeached President Johnson and took total control of reconstruction when 10 southern states including Georgia refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.The U.S. Army occupied the southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.Under Congressional Reconstruction southern states had to write another state constitution to be approved by Congress and ratify the 14th and 15th amendments
10 Georgia’s New Constitution Race was removed as a qualification for votingMarried women could control their own property.Imprisonment for debt was abolished.A free public school system was created.Georgia ratified the 14th & 15th amendments.The military left Georgia.
11 African-Americans In Georgia Politics In African-Americans delegate were elected with 132 whites to write the new State Constitution.The black delegates were denied hotel rooms in the capital of Milledgeville.The meeting was moved to Atlanta which became the new capital.In 1868, 32 African-Americans were elected to Georgia’s General Assembly.
12 Expulsion of African-American Representatives The majority white General Assembly voted to remove 28 of the African-American members.They argued that the State Constitution did not grant them the right to hold public office.Four mulatto members were allowed to retain their seats.
13 Henry McNeal TurnerHe was one of the African-American legislators expelled form the General Assembly.He became a Bishop in the African American Episcopal Church and encouraged African-Americans to return to Africa.
14 Rise of the Ku Klux KlanThe original purpose of the KKK was to protect white widows from the looting and attacks that took place after the War and to regain control of the government for the Democrats from RepublicansIt became an organization with the purpose of intimidating blacks particularly in voting.
15 End of ReconstructionRadical Republicans began losing control in Congress.In 1872 Congress granted amnesty to most former Confederates.
16 Reading assessmentWhat were the three categories of economic reconstruction?Why was so much land for sale after the Civil War?What was one problem with labor sources after the Civil War?What is capital?What was one reason there was little capital in Georgia after the Civil War?YOU MAY NOT USE NOTES OR BOOK TO ANSWER.
17 Reading AssessmentWhat agency was created to help freed slaves?What was a carpetbagger?What was a scalawag?How did the high demand for cotton help Georgia farmers?What do you think caused the world-wide shortage of cotton?
18 Lincoln’s Plan Also called Presidential Reconstruction Except for Confederate leaders, southerners would regain citizenship after taking an oath of loyalty to the United States.When 10% of the voters took the oath, they could elect delegates to write a new state constitution.The new state constitution had to abolish slavery, declare secession null and void, and cancel all war debts.
19 Military OccupationThe military would not leave until Georgia did the following:Registered black and white voters who took the oath of allegiance to the U.S.Confederate leaders would not be allowed to register.Write a new state constitution approved by the U.S. Congress.Ratify the 14th amendment.