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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 8 Joints.

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1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 8 Joints

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Joints (Articulations) Articulation—site where two or more bones meet Functions of joints: Give skeleton mobility Hold skeleton together

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Functional Classification of Joints Based on amount of movement allowed by the joint Three functional classifications: Synarthroses—immovable Amphiarthroses—slightly movable Diarthroses—freely movable

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Structural Classification of Joints Based on material binding bones together and whether or not a joint cavity is present Three structural classifications: Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Sutures Rigid, interlocking joints containing short connective tissue fibers Allow for growth during youth In middle age, sutures ossify and are called synostoses

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses Bones connected by ligaments (bands of fibrous tissue) Movement varies from immovable to slightly movable Examples: Synarthrotic distal tibiofibular joint Diarthrotic interosseous connection between radius and ulna

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses Peg-in-socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets Fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilaginous Joints Bones united by cartilage No joint cavity Two types: Synchondroses – typically epiphyseal plates Symphyses – pubic symphysis

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints Distinguishing features: 1.Articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage 2.Joint (synovial) cavity: small potential space 3.Articular (joint) capsule Outer fibrous capsule and an inner synovial membrane 4.Synovial fluid: Viscous slippery filtrate of plasma + hyaluronic acid Lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage 5.Three possible types of reinforcing ligaments: Capsular (intrinsic)—part of the fibrous capsule Extracapsular—outside the capsule Intracapsular—deep to capsule; covered by synovial membrane 6.Rich nerve and blood vessel supply: Nerve fibers detect pain, monitor joint position and stretch Capillary beds produce filtrate for synovial fluid

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 Periosteum Ligament Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures Bursae: Flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes Contain synovial fluid Commonly act as “ball bearings” where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures Tendon sheath: Elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stabilizing Factors at Synovial Joints Shapes of articular surfaces (minor role) Ligament number and location (limited role) Muscle tone, which keeps tendons that cross the joint taut Extremely important in reinforcing shoulder and knee joints and arches of the foot

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Movement Muscle attachments across a joint: Origin—attachment to the immovable bone Insertion—attachment to the movable bone Muscle contraction causes the insertion to move toward the origin Movements occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Synovial Joints: Range of Motion Nonaxial—slipping movements only Uniaxial—movement in one plane Biaxial—movement in two planes Multiaxial—movement in or around all three planes

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary of Characteristics of Body Joints Consult Table 8.2 for: Joint names Articulating bones Structural classification Functional classification Movements allowed

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements at Synovial Joints 1.Gliding 2.Angular movements: Flexion, extension, hyperextension Abduction, adduction Circumduction 3.Rotation Medial and lateral rotation

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements at Synovial Joints 4.Special movements Supination, pronation Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion of the foot Inversion, eversion Protraction, retraction Elevation, depression Opposition

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Movements that occur along the sagittal plane: Flexion—decreases the angle of the joint Extension— increases the angle of the joint Hyperextension—excessive extension beyond normal range of motion

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Angular Movements Movements that occur along the frontal plane: Abduction—movement away from the midline Adduction—movement toward the midline Circumduction—flexion + abduction + extension + adduction of a limb so as to describe a cone in space

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotation The turning of a bone around its own long axis Examples: Between C 1 and C 2 vertebrae Rotation of humerus and femur

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of radius around ulna: Supination (turning hand backward) Pronation (turning hand forward)

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of the foot: Dorsiflexion (upward movement) Plantar flexion (downward movement)

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements of the foot: Inversion (turn sole medially) Eversion (turn sole laterally)

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Movements in a transverse plane: Protraction (anterior movement) Retraction (posterior movement)

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Elevation (lifting a body part superiorly) Depression (moving a body part inferiorly)

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Movements Opposition of the thumb Movement in the saddle joint so that the thumb touches the tips of the other fingers

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Synovial Joints Six types, based on shape of articular surfaces: Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and socket

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Plane Joints Nonaxial joints Flat articular surfaces Short gliding movements Ex. Intercarpal Joint

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hinge Joints Uniaxial joints Motion along a single plane Flexion and extension only

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pivot Joints Rounded end of one bone conforms to a “sleeve,” or ring of another bone Uniaxial movement only

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) Joints Biaxial joints Both articular surfaces are oval Permit all angular movements

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Saddle Joints Biaxial Allow greater freedom of movement than condyloid joints Each articular surface has both concave and convex areas Ex. Thumbs (Carpo-metacarpal joints)

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ball-and-Socket Joints Multiaxial joints The most freely moving synovial joints

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Knee Joint Largest, most complex joint of body Three joints surrounded by a single joint cavity: Femoropatellar joint: Plane joint Allows gliding motion during knee flexion Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints between the femoral condyles and the C-shaped lateral and medial menisci (semilunar cartilages) of the tibia Allow flexion, extension, and some rotation when knee is partly flexed

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Knee Joint At least 12 associated bursae Capsule is reinforced by muscle tendons: E.g., quadriceps and semimembranosus tendons Joint capsule is thin and absent anteriorly Anteriorly, the quadriceps tendon gives rise to: Lateral and medial patellar retinacula Patellar ligament

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Knee Joint Capsular and extracapsular ligaments Help prevent hyperextension Intracapsular ligaments: Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments Prevent anterior-posterior displacement Reside outside the synovial cavity

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lateral knee injury

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint Ball-and-socket joint: head of humerus and glenoid fossa of the scapula Stability is sacrificed for greater freedom of movement

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Shoulder Joint Reinforcing ligaments: Coracohumeral ligament—helps support the weight of the upper limb Three glenohumeral ligaments—somewhat weak anterior reinforcements

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Shoulder joint Reinforcing muscle tendons: Tendon of the long head of biceps: Travels through the intertubercular groove Secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity Four rotator cuff tendons encircle the shoulder joint: Subscapularis Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Elbow Joint Radius and ulna articulate with the humerus Hinge joint formed mainly by trochlear notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus Flexion and extension only

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Elbow Joint Anular ligament—surrounds head of radius Two capsular ligaments restrict side-to-side movement: Ulnar collateral ligament Radial collateral ligament

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hip (Coxal) Joint Ball-and-socket joint Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket Acetabular labrum— enhances depth of socket

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hip Joint Reinforcing ligaments: Iliofemoral ligament Pubofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Ligamentum teres

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Joint Injuries Sprains The ligaments are stretched or torn Partial tears slowly repair themselves Complete ruptures require prompt surgical repair Cartilage tears Due to compression and shear stress Fragments may cause joint to lock or bind Cartilage rarely repairs itself Repaired with arthroscopic surgery

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 Common Joint Injuries Dislocations (luxations) Occur when bones are forced out of alignment Accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization Caused by serious falls or playing sports Subluxation—partial dislocation of a joint

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions Bursitis An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction Treated with rest and ice and, if severe, anti- inflammatory drugs Tendonitis Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse Symptoms and treatment similar to bursitis

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Arthritis >100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage joints Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S. Symptoms; pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint Acute forms: caused by bacteria, treated with antibiotics Chronic forms: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Osteoarthritis (OA) Common, irreversible, degenerative (“wear- and-tear”) arthritis 85% of all Americans develop OA, more women than men Probably related to the normal aging process

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Osteoarthritis (OA) More cartilage is destroyed than replaced in badly aligned or overworked joints Exposed bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, and restrict movement Treatment: moderate activity, mild pain relievers, capsaicin creams, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause Usually arises between age 40 and 50, but may occur at any age; affects 3 times as many women as men Signs and symptoms include joint pain and swelling (usually bilateral), anemia, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, and cardiovascular problems

54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rheumatoid Arthritis RA begins with synovitis of the affected joint Inflammatory blood cells migrate to the joint, release inflammatory chemicals Inflamed synovial membrane thickens into a pannus Pannus erodes cartilage, scar tissue forms, articulating bone ends connect (ankylosis)

55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.15


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