Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 9 “Joints” COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES: 1. 1. Joints: Structural and functional classification 2. 2. Structure of a typical synovial joint 3. 3. Types."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 9 “Joints” COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES: Joints: Structural and functional classification Structure of a typical synovial joint Types of synovial joints Terms for descriptions of movements
JOINTS –Defined: any place where two bones come together –General Function of Joints: - Hold the skeleton together - Allow for increased mobility and flexibility of skeleton
CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS Joints can be classified based on: Joints can be classified based on: -function (what kind of movement they allow) -structure (what material is found in the joint and if is there a joint cavity present). You are required to know each of these categories. You are required to know each of these categories.
Functional classification Synarthroses – joints that have NO movement. –Examples: sutures of the skull, gomphoses- teeth Amphiarthroses – partially movable joints. –Examples: intervertebral disc and pubic symphysis Diarthroses – freely movable joints. The most common type of functional joint in the body. –Examples: knee joint, shoulder joint, finger joints, ankle and wrist joints, etc.
Structural Classification 1. Fibrous joints (synarthroses): adjacent bones are joined by collagen fibers. 3 kinds: - sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses. 2. Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses): two bones are joined by cartilage. 2 kinds: - synchondroses, and symphyses. 3. Synovial joints ( Diarthroses): freely movable and most common joint in the body.
Joint mobility comparison Note that as mobility decreases, stability increases.
Fibrous joints (synarthroses):
Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses)
Synovial Joints (diarthroses) this type of joint is defined by the presence of a joint cavity filled with fluid. Most joints of the body fall into this class. Examples: knee joint, elbow joint, shoulder and hip joints and the phalanges of hands and feet, etc.
Structures in a Synovial Joint articular capsule – external and internal joint/synovial cavity – filled with synovial fluid articular cartilage – Hyaline cartilage synovial fluid – viscous/ clear colorless fluid ligaments – give the joint reinforcement and strength Nerves – provide feelings of pain and stretch 7. Vessels - provide nutrients to joint
Typical Synovial Joint
Additional joint structures Ligaments- join bones to bones Ligaments- join bones to bones –Consists of dense regular connective tissue. Tendons- join muscles to bone Tendons- join muscles to bone –Consists of dense regular connective tissue. Bursae- fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid Bursae- fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid –Occurs between bones and tendons or muscles –Acts to decrease friction during movement
Accessory joint structures 1. fatty pads - cushioning 2. menisci – tough fibrocartilage 3. bursae -flattened fibrous sac lined by synovial membrane. 4. tendon sheaths -fibrous tissue connecting a muscle to a bone
Knee joint structures Articular capsule Synovial membrane Medial and lateral menisci Suprapatellar, infrapatellar and prepatellar bursae Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments Tibial and fibular collateral ligaments Patellar capsule Articular cartilage Tendon of quadriceps femoris
Knee Joint Anterior view
Knee Joint posterior view
Types of Synovial Joints 1. Plane (gliding) Joints 2. Hinge Joints 3. Pivot Joints 4. Condyloid Joints 5. Saddle Joints 6. Ball and Socket Joints
Movements allowed by Synovial Joints 1. gliding –- bony surfaces of bone slide or glide over each other 2. flexion –- bending movement that decreases the angle 3. extension – movement the increases the angle, opposite of lexion 4. abduction –moving away from longitudinal axis 5. adduction –movement toward the longitudinal axis 6. circumduction –movement of the limb such that it describes a cone 7. rotation – turning the bone or limb around its long axis 8. supination –rotating the forearm laterally such that the palm faces superiorly
Movements allowed by Synovial Joints 9. pronation –- rotating the forearm medially such that the palm faces inferiorly 10. inversion –- sole of the foot faces or turns medially 11. eversion –- sole of the foot turn laterally 12. protraction –-juttting out of the jaw 13. retraction –- moving the jaw backward 14. elevation –- lifting the limb or body superiorly 15. depression –- moving the body part inferiorly 16. opposition –- to bring the thumb and index finger tips together
Extension and flexion Extension and flexion
Abduction and adduction
Protraction/Retraction Pronation/Supination Opposition of thumb and pinky