Presentation on theme: "COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES:"— Presentation transcript:
1COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES: CHAPTER 9 “Joints”COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES:Joints: Structural and functional classificationStructure of a typical synovial jointTypes of synovial jointsTerms for descriptions of movements
2JOINTS Defined: any place where two bones come together General Function of Joints:- Hold the skeleton together- Allow for increased mobility and flexibility of skeleton
3CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS Joints can be classified based on:-function (what kind of movement they allow)-structure (what material is found in the joint and if is there a joint cavity present).You are required to know each of these categories.
4Functional classification Synarthroses – joints that have NO movement.Examples: sutures of the skull, gomphoses- teethAmphiarthroses – partially movable joints.Examples: intervertebral disc and pubic symphysisDiarthroses – freely movable joints.The most common type of functional joint in the body.Examples: knee joint, shoulder joint, finger joints, ankle and wrist joints, etc.
5Structural Classification Fibrous joints (synarthroses): adjacent bones are joined by collagen fibers. 3 kinds:- sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses.Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses): two bones are joined by cartilage. 2 kinds:- synchondroses, and symphyses.Synovial joints (Diarthroses): freely movable and most common joint in the body.
6Joint mobility comparison Note that as mobility decreases, stability increases.
9Synovial Joints (diarthroses) this type of joint is defined by the presence of a joint cavity filled with fluid.Most joints of the body fall into this class.Examples: knee joint, elbow joint, shoulder and hip joints and the phalanges of hands and feet, etc.
10Structures in a Synovial Joint articular capsule – external and internaljoint/synovial cavity – filled with synovial fluidarticular cartilage – Hyaline cartilagesynovial fluid – viscous/ clear colorless fluidligaments – give the joint reinforcement and strengthNerves – provide feelings of pain and stretch7. Vessels - provide nutrients to joint
13Additional joint structures Ligaments- join bones to bonesConsists of dense regular connective tissue.Tendons- join muscles to boneBursae- fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluidOccurs between bones and tendons or musclesActs to decrease friction during movement
14Accessory joint structures fatty pads - cushioningmenisci – tough fibrocartilagebursae -flattened fibrous sac lined by synovial membrane.tendon sheaths -fibrous tissue connecting a muscle to a bone
15Knee joint structures Articular capsule Synovial membrane Medial and lateral menisciSuprapatellar, infrapatellar and prepatellar bursaeAnterior and posterior cruciate ligamentsTibial and fibular collateral ligamentsPatellar capsuleArticular cartilageTendon of quadriceps femoris
21Movements allowed by Synovial Joints 1. gliding – - bony surfaces of bone slide or glide over each other2. flexion –- bending movement that decreases the angle3. extension – movement the increases the angle, opposite of lexion4. abduction –moving away from longitudinal axis5. adduction –movement toward the longitudinal axis6. circumduction –movement of the limb such that it describes a cone7. rotation – turning the bone or limb around its long axis8. supination –rotating the forearm laterally such that the palm faces superiorly
22Movements allowed by Synovial Joints 9. pronation –- rotating the forearm medially such that the palm faces inferiorly10. inversion –- sole of the foot faces or turns medially11. eversion –- sole of the foot turn laterally12. protraction –-juttting out of the jaw13. retraction –- moving the jaw backward14. elevation –- lifting the limb or body superiorly15. depression –- moving the body part inferiorly16. opposition –- to bring the thumb and index finger tips together