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01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt1 JOINTS Where bones come together.

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Presentation on theme: "01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt1 JOINTS Where bones come together."— Presentation transcript:

1 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt1 JOINTS Where bones come together.

2 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt2 Classification of Joints Structural –Fibrous dense regular/irregular CT –Cartilaginous fibrocartilage –Synovial Functional –Synarthrosis Immovable –Amphiarthrosis slightly moveable –Diarthrosis very moveable

3 Classification of Joints 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt3 Fibrous joints, or sutures –Dense regular/irregular CT –Completely immovable. –Sutures in skull Coronal, Sagittal, Lambdoid, etc. may ossify in adult –Sutures in coxal bone ossify in childhood

4 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt4 Classification of Joints Cartilaginous –Fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage –Restrict movement, but with some "give" –Intervertebral discs –Pubic symphysis –Costal cartilages hyaline cartilage –Epiphyseal plates ossify in late adolescence

5 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt5 Classification of Joints Synovial joints, diarthroses –“freely moveable” ?? –Wide range of movement

6 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt6 Characteristics of a synovial joint Synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid Articular capsule –Outer fibrous capsule –Inner synovial membrane –Articular cartilage (hyaline) over ends of bones –Reinforcing ligaments

7 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt7 Articular capsule Outer fibrous capsule of dense irregular CT –Attached to periosteum of articulating bones –Portions with parallel fibers = ligaments Inner synovial membrane of loose CT with elastic fibers and adipocytes –Secretes synovial fluid (viscous, like egg white) –Lubricant –Nourishes articular cartilage

8 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt8 Reinforcing ligaments Extracapsular, –outside articular capsule Intracapsular, –inside articular capsule –Covered (surrounded) with synovial membrane –e.g. cruciate ligaments of knee

9 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt9 Knee (Tibiofemoral) joint ( a complex synovial joint) Articular capsule with intrinsic and extracapsular ligaments Articular cartilage Extracapsular ligaments –Patellar ligament –Tibial collateral ligament –Fibular collateral ligament

10 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt10 Knee (Tibiofemoral) joint Intracapsular ligaments –Anterior cruciate ligament –Posterior cruciate ligament Medial & lateral menisci –Fibrocartilage pads between femur and tibia Bursae

11 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt11 Knee (Tibiofemoral) joint Bursae of the knee –Deep infrapatellar bursa –Suprapatellar bursa –Prepatellar bursa

12 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt12 Stability and Limits of movement Shape of articulating surfaces and apposition of bones Ligaments Muscle tone and tension Apposition of soft tissues

13 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt13 Types of movement at diarthroses Gliding –plane joints Angular –saddle, –pivot, –hinge, –ball-and-socket

14 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt14 Directions of angular movement Flexion, extension, hyperextension

15 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt15 Directions of angular movement Abduction, adduction Circumduction

16 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt16 Directions of angular movement Rotation –Medial or lateral rotation

17 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt17 Directions of angular movement Pronation, Supination

18 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt18 Directions of angular movement Special movements of a foot –plantar flexion –dorsiflexion –inversion –eversion

19 01 Oct. 2012Joints.ppt19 Homeostatic imbalances of joints Sprain Damaged (torn) cartilage Dislocation Bursitis Tendonitis Osteoarthritis –85% of Americans –Erosion of articular cartilage Rheumatoid arthritis –>1% of Americans –Autoimmune disease Gout, gouty arthritis –Crystals of uric acid in joint capsules –Ankles, toes

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