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Nationalism and the First World War Carolyn P. Boyd Professor Emerita of History University of California Irvine.

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism and the First World War Carolyn P. Boyd Professor Emerita of History University of California Irvine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism and the First World War Carolyn P. Boyd Professor Emerita of History University of California Irvine

2 What is nationalism? Nationalism: two interpretations “Constructed” vs. innate –Modern vs. primordial –The “nation” and nationalism: which comes first? “Civic” vs. “ethnocultural” –Voluntary vs. involuntary –Inclusion vs. exclusion

3 What is nationalism? Political and social functions of nationalism –Integration and control: political, economic and social The “imagined community” –Boundary maintenance Who is a citizen? “Us” vs. “them”

4 Nationalism and the origins of the First World War Development of the “nation-state” in 19 th century Europe –Economic integration –Political and administrative centralization –Democratization –Nationalization of the masses Germany and Italy and the European balance of power

5 Europe in 1813

6 Europe 1850

7 Europe 1871

8 Europe 1913

9 International conflict, Pre-1914 Wars of national unification Imperial expansion and rivalries Nationalist movements in old empires (Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, British) Nationalization of the masses, “jingoism”

10 Wars and Alliances Pre 1914 Wars, Conflicts, and Crises, War of Italian Liberation, 1859 Austro-Prussian War, 1866 Franco-Prussian War, Russo-Turkish War, Fashoda, 1894 Sino-Japanese War, 1895 Spanish-American War, 1898 Boer War, 1902 Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Moroccan Crises of 1905, 1911 Balkan Crises and Wars, , , 1913

11 Imperial Rivalries Colonial Empires 1914

12 Colonial Africa 1920

13 The Ottoman Empire

14 Balkans

15 Ethnic Groups in the Austro- Hungarian Empire, 1910

16 The Search for Stability, The Alliance System – –Three Emperors’ League, 1872 (Germany, A-H, Russia) – –Triple Alliance, 1882 (Germany, A-H, Italy) – –Franco-Russian Dual Alliance, 1894 – –Entente Cordiale, 1904, 1907 (France, Russia, Great Britain)

17 Military Alliances on the Eve of the Great War

18 Nationalization, militarism, and militarization in Europe before 1914 War or peace? –Debates on ideological and economic grounds –General F. von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War (1911) Preparations for war –Expansion of armies and navies –Universal conscription –Erosion of civil supremacy (militarism) –Strategic doctrine: the triumph of the offensive –Militarization of society and culture

19 The Outbreak of War, 1914 The Third Balkan War The weakness of Austria-Hungary The imperatives of military planning and the alliance system Popular enthusiasm for war

20 Franz Ferdinand

21 Gavrilo Princip

22 Nationalism and the War Effort Mobilization of soldiers and civilians (the “home front”) Justifying the sacrifices of war –Defense of the “homeland” –Demonization of the enemy

23 Nationalism and mobilization

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25 Patriotic idealization of the “homeland”

26 Patriotic idealization of the homeland

27 Patriotic idealization

28 “Us vs. them:” Demonization of the enemy

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30 Nationalism and the Post-War Settlement Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points The Peace of Paris and the “Twenty Year Truce”

31 Wilson’s Fourteen Points -Synopsis 1. Open covenants, openly arrived at 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Free trade 4. Arms reduction consistent with domestic security 5. Adjustment of colonial claims, taking into account interests of the populations concerned 6. Evacuation of Russian territory; independent determination of its own political development 7. Evacuation of Belgium and restoration of its sovereignty 8. Evacuation of French territory and restoration of Alsace-Lorraine 9. Readjustment of Italian frontiers along lines of nationality 10. Autonomous development of peoples of Austria-Hungary; preservation of Empire 11. International settlement of Balkan conflicts; Serbian access to sea 12. Autonomous development of peoples under Turkish rule; free passage through Dardanelles 13. Independent Polish state, with access to sea 14. League of Nations


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