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World War I: 1914-1918.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I: 1914-1918."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I:

2 Formation of European Alliances: Central Powers
Three Emperor’s league: Germany, AH, Russia, 1873 When Bismarck dismissed as Chancellor in 1890, Germany did not renew alliance with Russia Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) Germany Under Bismarck afraid of French “war of revenge” from Franco-Prussian War 1879 (Dual Alliance) Wants to isolate France by forming alliances with Austria and Hungary 1882 (Triple Alliance) Italy joins the alliance because Italy hates France over Imperialism in Africa (France had taken Tunisia in 1881, which Italy wanted) Weakness was that historically, Italy hated Austria-Hungary

3 Bismarck’s Nightmare-The Two Front War

4 Triple Entente (France, GB, Russia)
France wanted Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany 1894 France formed a Dual Alliance with Russia 1904-GB makes a treaty with France- called the “Entente Cordiale” 1907-France makes a treaty with GB AND Russia, called the Triple Entente

5 Europe Divided -1907 CENTRAL POWERS: Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy ALLIES: Triple Entente- Britain, France, and Russia Equal Balance of Power, believed that this would maintain peace

6 Crises Preceding WWI Moroccan Crisis of 1905: Germany pledged support for revolution in Morocco against France, France not wanting war forced to Acknowledge independence of Morocco Had special interest in Morocco Moroccan Crisis of 1911: Germany challenged France’s attempt to make Morocco a protectorate Germany withdrew objections upon receiving a piece of French Congo Moroccan Crises GB and France closer together, as GB supported France Intensified hostility between Central Powers and Entente

7 Balkan Crisis of 1912-1913 “Powder Keg of Europe”
Russia supported expansion of Serbia, four nations (with Russian approval)-Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece- seized territory from Turkey A-H formed Albania to block Serbia from sea which showed A-H opposition to Russian interference A-H’s fear of a powerful Serbia Results: Russia and Serbia closer together Hatred of Russian and Serbia for A-H

8 “Powder Keg” explodes Serbian nationalists wanted the breakup of Austria-Hungary 1914, Serbian nationalist (Gavrillo Princep of terrorist group Black Hand) assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to A-H Took place in Sarajevo, Serbian populated portion of A-H Several Serbian government officials had been aware of the plot, no one warned Austria

9 Chain Reaction A-H was encouraged by the German emperor, William II who was guaranteed of a blank check, or total German support of whatever Austria-Hungary would do A-H issued an Ultimatum to Serbia Stop Anti-Austrian Propaganda Dismiss Anti-Austrian officials Permit A-H to investigate the Assassination within Serbia Serbia Agreed to all but the last (felt by agreeing they would go under A-H rule)

10 Everyone gets involved
A-H Declares war on Serbia Russia begins mobilizing to come to Serbia’s aid Germany, afraid of a two front war, declared war on both Russia and France Germany moved its armies across Belgium (neutral) to France Britain angered and fearful of having Germany in Belgium declared war on Germany


12 Underlying Causes of World War I
Militarism-glorified war and caused leaders to prepare armed forces for conflict Alliance System-divided European continent into 2 rival groups of nations Imperialism-thrust European colonies into fierce competition to gain colonies, new markets, and new sources of raw material Nationalism-spurred major European nations to extend their territory; awakened movements for independence among minor nationalities, such as the Serbs (Balkans)

13 Alliances of WWI Your task is to make a graphic organizer of the major alliances that led to WWI. Each of the following alliances must be covered: Holy Alliance Three Emperor’s League (1872) Dual Alliance (1879) Triple Alliance (1882) Entente Cordiale (1904) Central Power and Allies (1907) Also discuss Pan-Slavism

14 Major Leaders to Watch in WW I
Kaiser Wilhelm II-Germany

15 Major Leaders to Watch…
David Lloyd George- Britain

16 Tsar Nicholas II-Russia
Major Leaders to Watch Tsar Nicholas II-Russia

17 Major Leaders to Watch…
Woodrow Wilson-USA

18 Major Leaders to Watch…
George Clemenceau-France

19 Major Leaders of WW I Biographical Sketch
Pick one of the 5 major leaders, do a Bio-sketch. Include all of the following information Birthplace and year Childhood Education Major Achievements Occupation leading into War Motives for entering war Role in the War Role at the outcome of War Include at least 1 picture, and a summary paragraph. Attach a copy of your source information if it is from the internet. Properly document sources Due: Monday, March 19

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