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Chapter Thirteen The Great War

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1 Chapter Thirteen The Great War 1914-1918
Section One Marching Toward War

2 Rising Tensions in Europe
At the turn of the 20th century, Europe had been at peace for nearly 30 years. Many people believed that progress had made war a thing of the past. Europe was, however, moving toward a massive war that would engulf Europe and spread across the globe.

3 The Rise of Nationalism
Nationalism is a deep devotion to one’s country. It can serve as a unifying force within a nation, but it can also cause intense competition between countries. By the turn of the 20th century, a fierce rivalry had developed between Europe’s Great Powers. Germany Austria-Hungary Great Britain Russia Italy France The rivalry was due to the following: Competition for materials and markets Territorial disputes Control of the Balkans Intense nationalism in the Balkans

4 Imperialism and Militarism
The nations of Europe competed fiercely for colonies in Africa and Asia. This sometimes pushed European nations to the brink of war. The rivalry and mistrust continued to grow with the growing competition for colonies. An arms race had also begun at this time. By 1914, all the Great Powers, except Britain had large standing armies. Mobilization was emphasized and military power was glorified. Militarism- The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war.

5 Tangled Alliances Growing rivalries and mutual mistrust had led to the creation of several military alliances among the Great Powers as early as the 1870’s. These alliances were designed to keep peace in Europe. They instead helped push the continent into war.

6 Bismarck Forges Early Pacts
After 1871 Otto von Bismarck, the German chancellor, attempted to maintain peace in Europe after the Franco-Prussian War. Bismarck saw France as a threat to peace. He believed France still wanted revenge for the Franco-Prussian War. Bismarck formed the Triple Alliance in 1882. Triple Alliance- a military alliance formed between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. In 1881, Germany signed a treaty with Russia, further isolating France.

7 Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace
In 1890 Kaiser Wilhelm II forced Bismarck to resign. Wilhelm II wanted to show the world how mighty Germany really was. He allowed the treaty with Russia to lapse in 1890. Russia set up a military alliance with France in 1894. Wilhelm began a tremendous shipbuilding program in an effort to create a German navy that would equal Britain’s. Great Britain formed an alliance with France. In 1907 Britain formed another alliance, this time with France and Russia. Triple Entente- a military alliance between Britain, Russia, and France. By 1907, two rival military alliances now existed in Europe.

8 Crisis in the Balkans: A Restless Region
By the early 1900’s the Ottoman Empire, which included the Balkan region, was in decline. Many groups were struggling to break away from Ottoman rule or already had. New nations were forming: Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. Nationalism was a powerful force in these countries. Serbia had a large Slavic population and hoped to absorb all the Slavs on the Balkan Peninsula. Russia supported Serbia in this effort. Austria-Hungary opposed this effort, afraid that its own Slavs would want to join Serbia. In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, two largely Slavic regions. Serbia was outraged and vowed to take Bosnia and Herzegovina from Austria-Hungary.

9 A Shot Rings Throughout Europe
On June 28th, 1914 the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie traveled to Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital. Both were shot dead by a Serbian nationalist. On July 23rd, 1914 Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with a list of demands. Serbia knew that refusing would mean war with the more powerful Austria-Hungary. The Serbs met some of the demands and asked that the others be settled by an international conference. The Austro-Hungarians refused and declared war on Serbia on July 28th, 1914. The Russians, an ally of Serbia, mobilized their armies on the Austro-Hungarian border. The other nations of Europe pleaded with Russia and Austria-Hungary to avert war, but it was too late.

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