2 THE CAUSES THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM The Triple Entente : Russia, France, Britain (ENTENTE CORDIALE/ALLIES) *Italy, USA, British ColoniesThe Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy* (Central Powers) (Turkey and Bulgaria)
5 2. Militarism building up armed forces, getting ready for war. Naval Rivalry between Britain and GermanyFrance and Germany in an Arms Race
6 3. ImperialismFrance: wanted lost territory—Alsace/Lorraine), parts of Africa (Morocco).Germany: wanted her own Empire, which conflicted with France and Russia—Africa and Balkans.Austria-Hungary: wanted territory—Bosnia (Parts of the Ottoman Empire)Russia: wanted the Dardanelles—a trade route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.Britain: wanted to keep Gibraltar.
8 4. NationalismA-H: made up of a variety of ethnicities. Bosnians were SLAVIC/SERBIAN (affiliated with Russia—religion and ethnicity)Germany: nationalism encouraged by Kaiser Wilhelm II (same ethnicity as A-H)Britain and France: intense pride in their nation
9 Steps Series of Moroccan Crises A-H annexation of Bosnia Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand on June 28th, 1914 by Gavrilo Princip—a Serb nationalist (Black Hand)
13 THREE PERSPECTIVES ON THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCES The Treaty of Versailles
14 George Clemenceau: Realist Wants: People: supported him dismember Germanyrevengeguaranteed safetystripped of industry and armed forcesPeople: supported himWhat excerpts from Treaty did he support?War Guilt ClauseAlsace and LorraineMilitary restrictionsde-militarized Rhine valleyForbid reunification of Austria and Germany
15 Woodrow Wilson Idealist Wants: People: just and lasting peacecreation of the League of NationsDemocracyPeople:didn’t support himTreaty of Versailles defeated by US Senate WHY?What excerpts from Treaty did he support?League of NationsConstitution of LeagueAlsace and LorraineDisarmament
16 Lloyd George Middle of the Road Wants: People: supported him revenge and reparations—but do not cripple Germanyfeared refugees and communismwanted a trading partner in GermanyPeople: supported himWhat excerpts from Treaty did he support?War Guilt ClauseMilitary restrictionssurrender merchant fleetLeague of Nations mandates
26 SOCIAL EFFECTS: WOMEN: URBANIZATION: Roles changed—factory and office workersRight to VoteSocial and Political Power were exercised i.e. Women’s Christian Temperance MovementGained Social Freedom—changing clothesURBANIZATION:Move to citiesAutomobiles became importantWith automobile leisure time became important, teenagers
27 ECONOMIC EFFECTS: Very expensive—industrialization Allies owed money to the USGerman and Russian economies in ruin
28 POLITICAL EFFECTS: Balance of Power and Alliance system destroyed Autocracies collapsed—where one ruler wields power—Kaiser Wilhelm/Germany; Tsar Nicholas II/RussiaRussia became communist (we will learn about this in a few days)
29 FALLOUT FROM WWI: Rise of Nazism in Germany Rise of Fascism in Italy Failures of the League of NationsThe Second World War
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