2Chapter 12 How do perceptions influence individual behavior? How do personalities influence individual behavior?How do attitudes, emotions and moods influence individual behavior?
3Perceptual distortions can obscure individual differences 12.1 PerceptionsPerceptual distortions can obscure individual differencesPerception can cause attribution errors as we explain events and problemsImpression management is a way of influencing how others perceive usThe expression “Perception is reality” is valid. The way a person perceives things is real to that person.
4PERCEPTIONS Individual Differences Process for receiving and interpreting information from the environmentThe accuracy of two–way communication is limited by the perceptual distortions of the sender and receiver.
5PERCEPTIONS Individual Differences StereotypesUsing limited attributes of a group to describe an entire group or individuals in the groupHalo effectUsing one characteristic of a person to form an overall impressionStereotypes do not allow for individual differences. Managers can miss spotting potential in employees if stereotypes interfere with perception.
6PERCEPTIONS Individual Differences Selective perceptionLimit perception of information to that which agrees with existing beliefsProjectionAssign our personal attributes to another individualPerception related problems can be overcome by building trust.
7PERCEPTIONS Attribution Errors Developing explanations or causes for eventsFundamental attribution errorTendency to blame someone else when things go wrongSelf-serving biasBlame personal problems on external causes rather than accept personal responsibilityWhen faced with employee related perception related problems, it is good to remember that there are two perceivers and to question your perceptions of the employee as well as the employee’s perception of you.
8PERCEPTIONS Impression Management Attempting to influence how others perceive usIs it misrepresenting yourself to try to influence others by the way we dress and act? Probably not. We’re just trying to overcome perceptual distortion.
9Self-monitoring and other personality traits influence work behavior 12.2 PersonalitiesThe Big Five personality traits describe work-related individual differencesThe Myers-Briggs type indicator is a popular approach to personality assessmentSelf-monitoring and other personality traits influence work behaviorPeople with Type A personalities tend to stress themselvesStress has consequences for work performance and personal healthThere are as many personalities as there are people. Fortunately, they can be combined into a number of groups for academic and professional reasons. However, keep in mind that each person is unique in some way.
10PERSONALITIES Personality Traits Combination of characteristics that make us unique individualsUnderstanding the elements of personality help us to understand the strengths and weakness of each combination and how they will react in the workplace.
11PERSONALITIES Personality Traits The “Big Five” personality traitsExtroversionAn extravert is talkative, comfortable, and confident in interpersonal relationships; an introvert is more private, withdrawn, and reserved.AgreeablenessAn agreeable person is trusting, courteous, and helpful, getting along well with others; a disagreeable person is self-serving, skeptical, and tough, creating discomfort for others.ConscientiousnessA conscientious person is dependable, organized, and focused on getting things done; a person who lacks conscientiousness is careless, impulsive, and not achievement oriented.Emotional stabilityA person who is emotionally stable is secure, calm, steady, and self-confident; a person lacking emotional stability is excitable, anxious, nervous, and tense.Openness to ExperienceA person open to experience is broad-minded, imaginative, and open to new ideas; a person who lacks openness is narrow-minded, has few interests, and resists change.When you consider that each person has various degrees of these variables and each of us have different perceptions of the same person, it is easy to see how everyone appears to be different.
12PERSONALITIES Personality Assessment Myers-BriggsDimensions ofPersonality- how we relate to othersExtraversion/Introversion- how we gather informationSensation/Intuition- how we evaluate informationThinking/Feeling- how we react to the outside worldJudging/PerceivingMyers-Briggs type indicatorMyers-Briggs types are based on the work of Carl Jung.
13PERSONALITIES Personality Traits Locus of ControlInternalPersonal control over success and failure“If it is to be, it’s up to me!”ExternalLittle personal control“What happens, happens.”People with an internal locus of control tend to have higher self-esteem.
14PERSONALITIES Personality Traits AuthoritarianismRespect authorityMachiavellianismManipulate others to achieve goalsIn his Sixteenth-century book The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli gained lasting fame for his advice on how to use power to achieve personal goals.
15PERSONALITIES Personality Traits Self monitoringOpen to feedbackAble to adjust to changing situationsSelf monitoring involves flexibility and emotional intelligence.
16PERSONALITIES Personality Traits Type A personalitiesHigh achievement orientationCreates own stressIndicators of a type A personality are:Always moving, walking, and eating rapidlyImpatient, disliking waitingDoing or trying to do several things at onceFeeling guilty when relaxingTrying to schedule more in less timeUsing nervous gestures such as clenched fistsHurrying or interrupting the speech of others
17Stress Tension when faced with demands, constraints and opportunities PERSONALITIES StressStressTension when faced with demands, constraints and opportunitiesConstructive stressDestructive stressDifferent people can handle different levels of stress. Many believe that it is not the amount of stress in your life that counts but how you handle it that counts.
18Job burnout Workplace rage PERSONALITIES Stress Workplace rage makes the news when it turns into a shocking event. However, the signs are usually visible long before such events occur.
19PERSONALITIES StressSymptoms of stress can be misleading. Behaviors like low energy and bad attitude appear to be behavior problems rather than a symptom of job stress.
20Personal Wellness Helps cope with stress and job demands Rest Exercise PERSONALITIES StressPersonal WellnessHelps cope with stress and job demandsRestExerciseEating rightHealthy habitsWorkplace wellness programs can help employees cope with stress by encouraging healthy living habits like adequate exercise and proper diet.
2112.3 Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes predispose people to act in certain waysJob satisfaction is a positive attitude toward one’s job and work experiencesJob satisfaction influences behaviorJob satisfaction has a complex relationship with job performanceEmotions and moods are positive and negative states of mind that influence behaviorRecent trends such as eliminating pensions and health benefits and layoffs caused by the recession likely have a negative impact on employee attitudes.
22ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR Attitudes Attitudes predispose people to act in certain waysCognitive dissonanceDiscomfort felt when behavior is inconsistent from attitudeAttitudes are highly influenced by environment. If you are in the wrong environment, it might be wise to consider changing it.
23ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR Job Satisfaction Positive feeling about a job and work experienceThe Facts to Consider feature in the text indicates that job satisfaction in the U.S. has declined since 1995.
24ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR Work Behaviors Withdrawal behaviorAbsenteeismTurnoverOrganizational citizenshipPositive work behaviorsGoing the extra mileEmployee engagementAn increase in withdrawal behaviors should be an indicator to management that the job characteristics are unfulfilling.
25ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR Job Satisfaction and Performance Job satisfaction and performance are interrelatedThey are so interrelated that one does not necessarily need to be first. An increase in one leads to an increase in the other.
26ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR Emotions and Moods Strong feelings directed at someone or somethingEmotional IntelligenceAbility to understand and manage emotionsEmotional intelligence is an important management trait. It allows managers to keep a cool head in difficult situations and help other to keep theirs too.
27ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR Emotions and Moods Positive or negative feelings or state of mindMood contagionInfluence of one’s mood on othersEnthusiasm is contagious. Unfortunately, so are negative moods.