Presentation on theme: "Perception, Personality, and Emotion"— Presentation transcript:
1 Perception, Personality, and Emotion Chapter 2Perception, Personality, and Emotion
2 Chapter Outline What is Perception, and Why Is It Important? Factors Influencing PerceptionPerception and Judgement: Attribution TheoryFrequently Used Shortcuts in Judging OthersPersonalityEmotionsThis material is found at the beginning of the chapter.
3 Perception, Personality, and Emotions Questions for ConsiderationQuestions for ConsiderationWhat is perception, and why is it important for understanding the workplace?To what extent does personality affect behaviour?Does understanding emotions lead to better understanding how people interact?This material is found at the beginning of the chapter.
4 Perception What is Perception? Why Is it Important? A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.Why Is it Important?Because people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important.This material is found on page 36.
5 Why We Study Perceptions We study this topic to better understand how people make attributions about events.We don’t see reality. We interpret what we see and call it reality.The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of the truth of the attributionThis material is found on page 36.
6 Factors Influencing Perception The PerceiverThe TargetThe SituationThis material is found on page
7 Exhibit 2-1 Factors that Influence Perception Factors in the PerceiverAttitudesMotivesInterestsExperienceExpectationsFactors in the situationTimeWork settingSocial settingFactors in the targetNoveltyMotionSoundsSizeBackgroundProximityPerceptionThis material is found on page 38.
8 Perception and Judgement: Attribution Theory When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.Fundamental Attribution ErrorThe tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others.Self-Serving BiasThe tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.This material is found on page 38.
9 Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective PerceptionPeople selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest, background, experience, and attitudes.Halo EffectDrawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.Contrast EffectsEvaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.ProjectionAttributing one’s own characteristics to other peopleStereotypingJudging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.This material is found on page
10 Personality What is Personality? Personality Determinants The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.Personality DeterminantsHeredityEnvironmentSituationPersonality TraitsEnduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviourThe Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)The Big Five ModelThis material is found on page
11 Exhibit 2-2 Sixteen Primary Traits 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.vs.OutgoingMore intelligentEmotionally stableDominantHappy-go-luckyConscientiousVenturesomeSensitiveSuspiciousImaginativeShrewdApprehensiveExperimentingSelf-sufficientControlledTenseThis material is found on page
13 Exhibit 2-4 The Big Five Model ExtroversionAgreeablenessConscientiousnessEmotional StabilityOpenness to ExperienceThis material is found on pageExtroversion: This dimension captures one’s comfort level with relationships. Extroverts (high in extroversion)tend to be friendly and outgoing and to spend much of their time maintaining and enjoying a large number of relationships. Introverts tend to be reserved and to have fewer relationships, and they are more comfortable with solitude than most people are.Agreeableness: This dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. High agreeable people value harmony more than they value having their say or their way. They are cooperative and trusting of others. People who score low on agreeableness focus more on their own needs than on the needs of others.Conscientiousness: This dimension refers to the number of goals on which a person focuses. A highly conscientious person pursues fewer goals, in a purposeful way, and tends to be responsible, persistent, dependable, and achievement-oriented. Those who score low on this dimension tend to be more easily distracted, pursuing many goals, and more hedonistic.Emotional stability: This dimension taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be characterized as calm, enthusiastic, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, depressed, and insecure.Openness to experience: The final dimension addresses one’s range of interests. Extremely open people are fascinated by novelty and innovation. They tend to be imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual. Those at the other end of the openness category appear more conventional and find comfort in the familiar.
14 Exhibit 2-4 Big Five Personality Factors and Individual Job and Team Performance This material is found on page
15 Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Locus of ControlInternalsExternalsMachiavellianismSelf-EsteemSelf- MonitoringRisk TakingType A PersonalityType B PersonalityThis material is found on page There are self-awareness exercises in the chapter for each of these traits.
16 Type A’s and Type B’s Type A Personality Type B Personality Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly.Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place.Strive to think or do two or more things at once.Cannot cope with leisure time.Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.Type B PersonalityNever suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience.Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation.Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost.Can relax without guilt.This material is found on page
17 Emotions What are Emotions? Felt vs. Displayed Emotions Can People Be Emotionless?Gender and EmotionsWhy Should We Care About Emotions in the Workplace?This material is found on page
18 What are Emotions? Three related terms: Affect: A broad range of feelings that people experience.Emotions: Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.Moods: Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.This material is found on page
19 Emotional LabourWhen an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions.Employees can experience a conflict betweenfelt emotions: An individual’s actual emotionsdisplayed emotions: Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.This material is found on pageExamples:Effective managers have learned to be serious when giving an employee a negative performance evaluation and to cover up their anger when they've been passed over for promotion.The salesperson who hasn't learned to smile and appear friendly, but instead reveals his or her true feelings at the moment, isn't typically going to last long on most sales jobs.
20 Emotional Intelligence Noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressuresFive dimensions:Self-awarenessSelf-managementSelf-motivationEmpathySocial skillsThis material is found on pageSelf-awareness. Being aware of what you're feeling. It is exhibited by self-confident, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humour.Self-management. The ability to manage one's own emotions and impulses. It is exhibited by trustworthiness and integrity, comfort with ambiguity, and openness to change.Self-motivation. The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures. It is exhibited by a strong drive to achieve, optimism, and high organizational commitment.Empathy. The ability to sense how others are feeling. It is exhibited by expertise in building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity, and service to clients and customers.Social skills. The ability to handle the emotions of others. It is exhibited by persuasiveness, and expertise in building and leading groups and teams.
21 Exhibit 2-5 Facial Expressions Convey Emotions This material is found on page 57.Facial expressions are a window into a person's feelings. Notice the difference in facial features: the height of cheeks, the raising or lowering of the brow, the turn of the mouth, the positioning of the lips, and the configuration of muscles around the eyes.
22 Summary and Implications PerceptionIndividuals behave based not on the way their external environment actually is but, rather, on what they see or believe it to beEvidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itselfAbsenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptionsPersonalityPersonality helps us predict behaviourPersonality can help match people to jobs, to some extent at leastEmotionsCan hinder performance, especially negative emotionsCan also enhance performanceThis material is found on page