2THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT The IndividualInterpersonal Influence and Group BehaviorOrganizational ProcessesGroup behavior and work teamsIntergroup conflict and negotiationsOrganizational power and politicsCommunicationSkills & AbilitiesPerceptionPersonalityAttitudesValuesLeadershipCommunicationsDecision makingReward SystemJob DesignINDIVIDUALBEHAVIOR IN THEORGANIZATION
3First law of human behavior: “People are different. What one person considers a golden opportunity another considers a threat.”Caveat
4PERCEPTIONPerception is the process by which individuals make sense of their world.The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.Perceptual filtershow people experience stimulipersonality, psychology, experience, preferences, beliefs-based differencesObjective vs. perceived realities
5Perception People perceive the world uniquely Differences in perceptions can cause problemsCommunicationConflictMotivationJudgmentDecision Making
6Social PerceptionHow we gather information about the social world--about peoples’ behavior, moods, motives, and traitsSimilar to object perception, butPeople are more dynamic than objectsWe’re trying to figure out intentions, motives, and causes of behavior
7Attribution Why did they do that? internal causes external causes traitsskillsabilitiesexternal causessituational constraints
8PERCEPTUAL DISTORTIONS Selective perceptionnotice and accept stimuli which are consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectationsClosuretendency to fill in the gaps when information is missingwe assume that what we don’t know is consistent with what we do knowPrimacy/Recency effectsDisproportionately high weight is given to the first/last information obtained about a stimulusFundamental attribution errorThe tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people’s actions to internal causes.
9PERCEPTUAL DISTORTIONS StereotypingA person has beliefs about a class of stimulus objects and generalizes those beliefs to encounters with members of that class of objects.Halo EffectsGeneralizing from an overall evaluation of an individual to specific characteristics and visa versa.Expectancy effectPeople perceive stimuli in ways that confirm their expectationsSelf fulfilling prophecy
11Guard against specific biases StereotypesBe aware that stereotyping can occur with very little information, remain open to new informationRecognize that stereotypes rarely apply to a specific individualFundamental attribution error?Primacy/recency?Halo?Expectancy?
13SELF-PERCEPTIONThe same processes and biases lead to both accurate and inaccurate perceptions of ourselves.Self-serving biasattribute successes to ourselves - internalattribute failures to the environment – externalImplication for feedback?Implication of our own self-awareness?
14JENSEN SHOESWhat do you see as the strengths and weaknesses of Brooks and Kravitz performance, interactions, and career management thus far?What were Brooks’ assumptions about Kravitz’s abilities, attitudes and motivations? Discuss the accuracy of these assumptions.What were Kravitz’ assumptions about Brooks’ abilities, attitudes and motivations? Discuss the accuracy of these assumptions.What perceptual biases and distortions occurred and influenced the interactions between Kravitz and Brooks?What would Brooks and Kravitz have had to do differently to result in a more effective working relationship?From their own perspectiveFrom the other’s perspective
18PERSONALITYUnique set of traits and characteristics that are relatively stable over time and determine a person’s preferences and behavior.Does personality matter?Implication?Which dimensions of personality?
19Emotional Intelligence Ability to detect, express, and manage emotion in oneself and others.Other(Social Competence)Self(Personal Competence)Self AwarenessSocial Awareness(Empathy)Self-ManagementRelationship Management(Social Skills)Recognitionof emotionsRegulationof emotions
20Emotional Intelligence Some suggest that EI is the best predictor of work successIt’s “learnable”It’s related to communication, motivation (self and others), effective leadership(Hendrie Weisinger, “Emotional Intelligence at Work” (Jossey-Bass, 1998).
21SELF-ESTEEM (SELF CONCEPT) How we perceive ourselves in terms of our abilities, competencies, and effectivenessGlobal, role-specific, job-based, organization-basedHigh self esteem is related to higher performance, commitment, loyalty, and longevity.What can managers do to foster high self esteem?
23LOCUS OF CONTROLThe extent to which people believe their actions determine what happens to them in life.InternalExternalWhy is locus of control important?How?
24JUNGS TYPOLOGY 16 personality types based on 4 sets of preferences Extraversion vs. IntroversionSensation vs. Intuition (N)—PerceptionThinking vs. Feeling—JudgmentPerception vs. Judgment
25THE “BIG FIVE”: Conscientiousness The degree to which a person is dependable, organized, thorough, perseverant, honestMost consistent personality predictor of performanceAlso predicts lack of problem behavior
26THE “BIG FIVE”: Agreeableness The extent to which a person is polite, good natured, flexible, cooperative, trusting.May predict job performance in jobs…
27THE “BIG FIVE”: Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) The degree to which a person is anxious, depressed, moody, emotionally unstable, temperamental.May predict job performance in what type of jobs?
28THE “BIG FIVE”: Openness The degree to which a person is imaginative, curious, flexible, open to change.May predict job performance where?
29THE “BIG FIVE”: Extraversion The degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, ambitious.May predict job performance in what type of jobs?