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Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations

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1 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations
Chapter 14

2 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations
Managers need to understand the way individuals & groups act Employees and managers bring their individual differences to work each day Differences in attitudes, values, personality, and behavior influence how people interpret an assignment, whether they like to be told what to do how they handle challenges how they interact with others Manager’s Challenge: Quick Eagle Networks

3 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations
Topics Chapter 14 Attitudes Personality Perception Learning Stress management

4 Organizational Behavior
Commonly called OB Interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of attitudes behavior performance

5 Interdisciplinary Influences on Organizational Behavior
Economics Vocational Counseling Cultural Anthropology Sociology Management Organizational Behavior Ethics Psychology Industrial Engineering

6 Organizational Citizenship
Work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization’s success Being helpful to coworkers and customers Doing extra work when necessary Looking for ways to improve products & procedures

7 Attitudes Cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way Attitudes determine how people Perceive the work environment Interact with others Behave on the job or

8 Components of an Attitude

9 Components of Attitudes
Particularly important when attempting to change attitudes Cognitive component includes the beliefs, opinions, and information the person has about the object of the attitude Affective component is the person’s emotions or feelings about the object of the attitude Behavioral component of an attitude is the person’s intention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certain way

10 High-Performance Work Attitudes
Two attitudes that might relate to high performance Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment Managers of today’s knowledge workers often rely on job satisfaction to keep motivation and enthusiasm for the organization high

11 High-Performance Work Attitudes
Job Satisfaction = positive attitude toward one’s job Organizational Commitment = loyalty to and heavy involvement in one’s organization

12 Conflicts Among Attitudes
Cognitive Dissonance = condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict Leon Festinger – 1950s People want to behave in accordance with their attitudes Usually will take corrective action

13 Perception Cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by Selecting Organizing Interpreting information

14 Perception Perception Process: Cognitive process used to make sense out of the environment (3 steps) Observe information via senses Screen information & select what to process Organize selected data into patterns Perceptual Selectivity: process by which individuals screen and select various stimuli that vie for their attention Primacy (toward beginning) Recency (toward end of event) Perceptual Distortions: errors in perceptual judgment arising from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process Common Errors: Stereotyping Halo effect Projection

15 Common Perceptual Distortions
Stereotyping Tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual

16 Common Perceptual Distortions
Halo Effect Overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable

17 Common Perceptual Distortions
Projection Tendency to see one’s own personal traits in other people

18 Common Perceptual Distortions
Perceptual Defense Tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas objects, or people that are threatening to them

19 Attributions Judgments about what caused a person’s behavior—either characteristics of the person or of the situation As people organize what they perceive, they often draw conclusions

20 External or Internal Attributions

21 Attribution Biases Fundamental Attribution Error = tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another’s behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors Self-serving Bias = tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one’s sucesses and the contribution of external factors to one’s failures

22 Personality Set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment Big Five Personality Factors Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience

23 Big Five Personality Factors

24 Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Basic Components
Self-awareness: basis for all other components, being aware of what you are feeling Self-management: control disruptive or harmful emotions and balance one’s moods so they do not cloud thinking Social awareness: understand others and practice empathy Relationship awareness: connect to others, build positive relationships, respond to emotions of others, and influence others

25 Locus of Control Tendency to place primary responsibility for one’s success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally) Internal locus of control- your actions influence what happens to you External locus of control- represents pawns of fate

26 Behaviors Influenced by Personality
Authoritarianism = belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization Stick to conventional values Obey recognized authority above them Critically judge others Concerned with power and toughness Oppose the use of subjective feelings

27 Behaviors Influenced by Personality
Machiavellianism = tendency to direct much of one’s behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain

28 Problem Solving Styles
Based on work of Carl Jung Individuals differ in the way they solve problems and make decisions Gathering and evaluating information are separate activities Gather information Sensation Intuition Evaluate information Thinking Feeling

29 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Personality test that measures a person’s preference for introversion vs. extroversion sensation vs. intuition thinking vs. feeling judging vs. perceiving Experiential Exercise: Personality Assessment (MBTI)

30 Learning and Learning Styles
Learning = change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience Learning Styles Diverger Assimilator Converger Accommodator

31 Stress and Stress Management
Stress = physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual Type A Behavior = pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work Type B Behavior = pattern that lacks Type A and includes a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle Ethical Dilemma: Should I Fudge the Numbers?

32 The Stress Response (GAS)

33 Work stress is skyrocketing
Four Categories Job Tasks Demands Physical Demands Role Demand (Sets of expected behaviors) Interpersonal Demands

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