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Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations Chapter 14

2 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations Employees and managers bring their individual differences to work each day Differences in attitudes, values, personality, and behavior influence – how people interpret an assignment, – whether they like to be told what to do – how they handle challenges – how they interact with others Managers Challenge: Quick Eagle Networks Managers need to understand the way individuals & groups act

3 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 3 Dynamics of Behavior in Organizations Attitudes Personality Perception Learning Stress management Topics Chapter 14

4 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 4 Organizational Behavior Interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of attitudes behavior performance Commonly called OB

5 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 5 Industrial Engineering Vocational Counseling Cultural Anthropology Psychology Interdisciplinary Influences on Organizational Behavior Sociology Organizational Behavior Economics Management Ethics

6 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 6 Organizational Citizenship Work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organizations success Being helpful to coworkers and customers Doing extra work when necessary Looking for ways to improve products & procedures

7 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 7 Attitudes Cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way Attitudes determine how people – Perceive the work environment – Interact with others – Behave on the job or

8 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 8 Components of an Attitude

9 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 9 Components of Attitudes Cognitive component includes the beliefs, opinions, and information the person has about the object of the attitude Affective component is the persons emotions or feelings about the object of the attitude Behavioral component of an attitude is the persons intention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certain way Particularly important when attempting to change attitudes

10 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 10 High-Performance Work Attitudes Two attitudes that might relate to high performance – Job Satisfaction – Organizational Commitment Managers of todays knowledge workers often rely on job satisfaction to keep motivation and enthusiasm for the organization high

11 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 11 High-Performance Work Attitudes Job Satisfaction = positive attitude toward ones job Organizational Commitment = loyalty to and heavy involvement in ones organization

12 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 12 Conflicts Among Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance = condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict – Leon Festinger – 1950s – People want to behave in accordance with their attitudes – Usually will take corrective action

13 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 13 Perception Cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by Selecting Organizing Interpreting information

14 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 14 Perception Perception Process : Cognitive process used to make sense out of the environment (3 steps) Observe information via senses Screen information & select what to process Organize selected data into patterns Perceptual Selectivity: process by which individuals screen and select various stimuli that vie for their attention Primacy (toward beginning) Recency (toward end of event) Perceptual Distortions: errors in perceptual judgment arising from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process Common Errors: Stereotyping Halo effect Projection

15 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 15 Common Perceptual Distortions Tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual Stereotyping

16 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 16 Common Perceptual Distortions Overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable Halo Effect

17 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 17 Common Perceptual Distortions Tendency to see ones own personal traits in other people Projection

18 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 18 Common Perceptual Distortions Tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas objects, or people that are threatening to them Perceptual Defense

19 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 19 Attributions Judgments about what caused a persons behavioreither characteristics of the person or of the situation As people organize what they perceive, they often draw conclusions

20 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 20 External or Internal Attributions

21 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 21 Attribution Biases Fundamental Attribution Error = tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on anothers behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors Self-serving Bias = tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to ones sucesses and the contribution of external factors to ones failures

22 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 22 Personality Set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment – Big Five Personality Factors Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience

23 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 23 Big Five Personality Factors

24 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 24 Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Basic Components Self-awareness: basis for all other components, being aware of what you are feeling Self-management: control disruptive or harmful emotions and balance ones moods so they do not cloud thinking Social awareness: understand others and practice empathy Relationship awareness: connect to others, build positive relationships, respond to emotions of others, and influence others

25 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 25 Locus of Control Tendency to place primary responsibility for ones success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally) Internal locus of control- your actions influence what happens to you External locus of control- represents pawns of fate

26 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 26 Behaviors Influenced by Personality Authoritarianism = belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization Concerned with power and toughness Obey recognized authority above them Stick to conventional values Critically judge others Oppose the use of subjective feelings

27 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 27 Behaviors Influenced by Personality Machiavellianism = tendency to direct much of ones behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain

28 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 28 Problem Solving Styles Individuals differ in the way they solve problems and make decisions Gathering and evaluating information are separate activities Gather information Sensation Intuition Evaluate information Thinking Feeling Based on work of Carl Jung

29 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 29 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Personality test that measures a persons preference for – introversion vs. extroversion – sensation vs. intuition – thinking vs. feeling – judging vs. perceiving Experiential Exercise: Personality Assessment (MBTI)

30 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 30 Learning and Learning Styles Learning = change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience Learning Styles Diverger Assimilator Converger Accommodator

31 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 31 Stress and Stress Management Stress = physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual Type A Behavior = pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work Type B Behavior = pattern that lacks Type A and includes a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle Ethical Dilemma: Should I Fudge the Numbers?

32 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 32 The Stress Response (GAS)

33 Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 33 Work Stress Four Categories Job Tasks Demands Physical Demands Role Demand (Sets of expected behaviors) Interpersonal Demands Work stress is skyrocketing


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