2Perception and Personality, and Emotions Questions for ConsiderationQuestions for ConsiderationWhat is perception?What causes people to have different perceptions of the same situation?Can people be mistaken in their perceptions?Does perception really affect outcome?What is personality and how does it affect behaviour?Can emotions help or get in the way when dealing with others?
3Perception What is Perception? Why Is it Important? The process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.Why Is it Important?Because people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important.
4Why We Study Perceptions We study this topic to better understand how people make attributions about events.We don’t see reality. We interpret what we see and call it reality.The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of the truth of the attribution
5Factors Influencing Perception The PerceiverThe TargetThe Situation
6Factors that Influence Perception The Target•NoveltyMotionSoundsSizeBackgroundProximityThe PerceiverAttitudesMotivesInterestsExperienceExpectationsThe SituationTimeWork settingSocial setting
7Perceptual Errors Attribution Theory Selective Perception Halo Effect Contrast EffectsProjectionStereotyping
8Attribution TheoryWhen individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.DistinctivenessDoes individual act the same way in other situations?ConsensusDoes individual act the same as others in same situation?ConsistencyDoes the individual act the same way over time?
9Attribution Theory Fundamental Attribution Error Self-Serving Bias The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others.Self-Serving BiasThe tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
10Attribution Theory Attribution Observation Interpretation of cause High(Seldom)DistinctivenessExternal(How often does theperson do this inInternalother settings?)Low(Frequently)High(Frequently)ConsensusExternalIndividual(How often do otherbehaviourpeople do this inInternalsimilar situations?)Low(Seldom)High(Frequently)ConsistencyInternal(How often did theperson do this inExternalthe past?)Low(Seldom)
11Additional Perceptual Errors Selective PerceptionPeople selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudesHalo EffectDrawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristicContrast EffectsA person’s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered
12Additional Perceptual Errors ProjectionAttributing one’s own characteristics to other peopleStereotypingJudging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs
13Personality Personality Determinants Personality Traits The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.Personality DeterminantsHeredityEnvironmentSituationPersonality TraitsEnduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviourThe Big Five Model
15The Big Five Model Classifications Extroversion Agreeableness ConscientiousnessEmotional StabilityOpenness to Experience
16Big Five Personality Factors and Performance Relationship to Job PerformanceRelationship to Team PerformanceExtroversion* Positively related to job performance in occupations requiring social interaction* Positively related to training proficiency for all occupations* Positively related to team performance* Positively related to degree of participation within teamAgreeableness* Positively related to job performance in service jobs* Most studies found no link between agreeableness and performance or productivity in teams* Some found a negative link between person’s likeability and team performanceConscientiousness* Positively related to job performance for all occupational groups* May be better than ability in predicting job performance
17Big Five Personality Factors and Performance Relationship to Job PerformanceRelationship to Team PerformanceEmotional Stability* A minimal threshold amount may be necessary for adequate performance; greater degrees notrelated to job performance* Positively related to performance in service jobs* May be better than ability in predicting job performance across all occupational groupsOpenness to Experience*Positively related to training proficiency*Data unavailable
18Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Locus of ControlMachiavellianismSelf-EsteemSelf-MonitoringRisk TakingType A and Type B Personalities
19Locus of ControlThe degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fateInternalsIndividuals who believe that they control what happens to themExternalsIndividuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance
20MachiavellianismDegree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means
21Self-EsteemIndividuals’ degree of liking or disliking of themselves
22Self-MonitoringA personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust behaviour to external situational factors
23Risk-TakingRefers to a person’s willingness to take chances or risks
24Type A Personality Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly. Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place.Strive to think or do two or more things at once.Cannot cope with leisure time.Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
25Type B PersonalityNever suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience.Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation.Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost.Can relax without guilt.