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© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Individual Behavior & Performance OBJECTIVES DESCRIPTION OF BASIC ATTRIBUTES OF INDIVIDUALS UNDERSTAND WHAT VALUES, ATTITUDES & PERCEPTUAL PROCESS ARE DISCUSS MOTIVATION THEORIES UNDERSTAND WHAT IS LEARNING, REINFORCEMENT, AND SELF - MANAGEMENT DESCRIPTION OF JOB DESIGN STRATEGIES
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Description of Basic Attributes of Individuals OBJECTIVE : TO UNDERSTAND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL ATTRIBUTES & JOB REQUIREMENTS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Individual Performance Factors OP = I x WE x OS OP= organizational performance I= individual attributes WE= work effort OS= organizational support
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Individual Attributes Individual Attributes = a capacity to perform OP = I x WE x OS THAT IS : GENDER (MEN, WOMEN) AGE APTITUDE ABILITY (WHAT A PERSON CAN DO) PERSONALITY VALUE & ATTITUDE PERCEPTION
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Aptitude = THE CAPACITY TO LEARN SOMETHING Ability = THE CAPACITY TO PERFORM VARIOUS TASKS NEEDED FOR A GIVEN JOB Competency = ABILITY + APTITUDE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Personality… … REPRESENTS THE OVERALL PROFILE OR COMBINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS THAT REFLECTS THE UNIQUE NATURE OF A PERSON AS THAT PERSON REACTS AND INTERACTS WITH OTHERS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 How Personalities Differ: Personality Dimensions EXTRAVERSION: sociable, assertive AGREEABLENESS: trusting, cooperative CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: responsible EMOTIONAL STABILITY: relaxed, secure OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE: imaginative
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 (Personality) Social Traits REFLECT THE WAY A PERSON APPEARS TO OTHERS WHEN INTERACTING IN VARIOUS SOCIAL SETTINGS 5 PERSONAL CONCEPTIONS:
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall Locus of Control INTERNALS ARE PERSONS WITH AN INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL. THEY ARE PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THAT THEY CONTROL THEIR OWN FATE OR DESTINY EXTERNALS ARE PERSONS WITH AN EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL, WHO BELIEVE THAT WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM IS BEYOND THEIR CONTROL IS THE INTERNAL - EXTERNAL ORIENTATION, i.e. THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON FEELS ABLE TO AFFECT HIS/HER OWN LIFE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Locus of Control: Examples Many of the unhappy things in peoples lives are partially due to bad luck Peoples misfortunes result from the mistakes they make (b) As far as world affairs are concerned, most of us are victims of forces we can neither understand nor control By taking an active part in political & social affairs, people can control world events (b) (b shows an internal orientation)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall Authoritarianism IS A PERSONALITY TRAIT THAT FOCUSES ON THE RIGIDITY OF A PERSON´S BELIEFS – A TENDENCY TO ADHERE RIGIDLY TO CONVENTIONAL VALUES AND TO OBEY RECOGNIZED AUTHORITY
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall Dogmatism IS A PERSONALITY TRAIT THAT REGARDS LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY AS ABSOLUTE AND ACCEPTS OR REJECTS OTHERS BASED ON THEIR ACCEPTANCE OF AUTHORITY
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall Machiavellians ARE PEOPLE WHO VIEW AND MANIPULATE OTHERS FOR PURELY PERSONAL GAINS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall Self-monitoring REFLECTS A PERSONS ABILITY TO ADJUST HIS OR HER BEHAVIOR TO EXTERNAL, SITUATIONAL (ENVIRONMENTAL) FACTORS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Values & Attitudes WHAT ARE VALUES? Beliefs that guide actions & judgments across a variety of situations Values reflect a persons sense of right & wrong WHY ARE VALUES IMPORTANT? Values & attitudes influence the way people perceive what happens, their behavior & outputs
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Sources of Values Parents (family) Friends Teachers External reference groups
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Types of Values Terminal values ARE VALUES THAT REFLECT A PERSON´S BELIEFS ABOUT ENDS TO BE ACHIEVED Instrumental values ARE VALUES THAT REFLECT A PERSON´S BELIEFS ABOUT THE MEANS FOR ACHIEVING DESIRED ENDS WHAT ARE THE VALUES OF THE YOUNG GENERATION? WHAT ARE THE VALUES OF SLOVAK PEOPLE? WHAT ARE THE VALUES OF PEOPLE IN THE USA?
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Top 9 Work-related Values IMPORTANT FOR THE NEW WORKFORCE AS ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIALISTS BELIEVE 1.RECOGNITION FOR COMPETENCE & ACCOMPLISHMENTS 2.RESPECT & DIGNITY 3.PERSONAL CHOICE & FREEDOM 4.INVOLVEMENT AT WORK 5.PRIDE IN ONES WORK 6.LIFESTYLE QUALITY 7.FINANCIAL SECURITY 8.SELF-DEVELOPMENT 9.HEALTH & WELLNESS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 What Are Attitudes? …PREDISPOSITIONS TO RESPOND IN A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE WAY TO SOMEONE OR SOMETHING IN ONE´S ENVIRONMENT ATTITUDES ARE INFLUENCED BY VALUES, BUT THEY FOCUS ON SPECIFIC PEOPLE OR OBJECTS, WHILE VALUES HAVE A MORE GENERAL FOCUS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Example EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO PARTICIPATE IS A VALUE (YOUR POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE FEELING ABOUT YOUR JOB) WHEN YOU SAY THAT YOU LIKE OR DISLIKE SOMEONE OR SOMETHING, YOU ARE EXPRESSING AN ATTITUDE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 AN IMPORTANT WORK - RELATED ATTITUDE IS JOB SATISFACTION
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Components of Attitudes 1.COGNITIVE COMPONENTS ARE THE BELIEFS, OPINIONS, KNOWLEDGE, OR INFORMATION A PERSON POSSESSES 2.BELIEFS REPRESENT IDEAS ABOUT SOMEONE OR SOMETHING AND THE CONCLUSIONS PEOPLE DRAW ABOUT THEM 3.AFFECTIVE COMPONENTS ARE THE SPECIFIC FEELINGS REGARDING THE PERSONAL IMPACT OF SOME FACTS (e.g. I dont like my job) 4.BEHAVIORAL COMPONENTS ARE THE INTENTIONS TO BEHAVE IN A CERTAIN WAY BASED ON A PERSON´S SPECIFIC FEELINGS OR ATTITUDE (e.g. Im going to quit my job)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Components of Attitudes Systematically Relate to Each Other as Follows: Beliefs & Values AttitudesBehavior CREATETHAT PREDISPOSE My job lacks responsibility I dont like my job Im going to quit my job
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Job Satisfaction as an Attitude JOB SATISFACTION IS THE DEGREE TO WHICH INDIVIDUALS FEEL POSITIVELY OR NEGATIVELY ABOUT THEIR JOBS TWO CLOSELY RELATED ATTITUDES TO JOB SATISFACTION ARE: 1.Organizational Commitment - THE DEGREE TO WHICH A PERSON STRONGLY IDENTIFIES WITH AND FEELS A PART OF THE ORGANIZATION 2.Job Involvement - THE WILLINGNESS OF A PERSON TO WORK HARD AND APPLY EFFORT BEYOND NORMAL JOB EXPECTATIONS
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Job Satisfaction & Performance I SPEND 42 HOURS A WEEK HERE – AM I SUPPOSED TO WORK, TOO? JOB SATISFACTION - PERFORMANCE CONTROVERSY: Satisfaction causes performance: S -> P Performance causes satisfaction: P -> S Reward causes both performance & satisfaction: R -> P&S Which one do you prefer and why?
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Perception PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH PEOPLE RECEIVE, ORGANIZE, AND INTERPRET INFORMATION FROM THEIR ENVIRONMENT Factors influencing perception: Perceiver (experience, needs & motives, values, attitudes) Setting (physical, social organizational) The perceived (figure, intensity, size, motion, repetition)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Common Perceptual Distortions HALO EFFECT – OCCURS WHEN ONE ATTRIBUTE OF A PERSON OR SITUATION IS USED TO DEVELOP AN OVERALL IMPRESSION OF THE PERSON OR SITUATION SELECTIVE PERCEPTION – IS THE TENDENCY TO SINGLE OUT FOR ATTENTION THOSE ASPECTS OF A SITUATION OR PERSON THAT REINFORCE OR EMERGE AND ARE CONSISTENT WITH EXISTING BELIEFS, VALUES, AND NEEDS PROJECTION – IS THE ASSIGNMENT OF PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES TO OTHER INDIVIDUALS (E.G.MANAGERS WHO ASSUME THAT THE NEEDS OF THEIR SUBORDINATES AND THEIR OWN COINCIDE) CONTRAST EFFECT – OCCURS WHEN AN INDIVIDUALS CHARACTERISTICS ARE CONTRASTED WITH THOSE OF OTHERS RECENTLY ENCOUNTERED, WHO RANK HIGHER OR LOWER ON THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY – IS THE TENDENCY TO CREATE OR FIND IN ANOTHER SITUATION OR INDIVIDUAL THAT WHICH ONE HAS EXPECTED TO FIND
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 An Old Hag or a Young Woman? A Problem of Perception
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