Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Management, 9/e John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. Prepared by: Jim LoPresti University of Colorado, Boulder Published by:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Management, 9/e John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. Prepared by: Jim LoPresti University of Colorado, Boulder Published by:"— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Management, 9/e John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. Prepared by: Jim LoPresti University of Colorado, Boulder Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15: Individual Behavior

2 Management 9/e - Chapter 152 Planning Ahead — Chapter 15 Study Questions  How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  What should we know about personalities in the workplace?  How do attitudes influence individual behavior?  What are the dynamics of stress and stress management?

3 Management 9/e - Chapter 153 Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  Basic background on work Work can be a “turn-on” or a “turn-off.” People may work under conditions that don’t provide satisfaction  but this it doesn’t have to be this way.. Valuing people and creating jobs and work environments that respect people’s needs and potential will benefit everyone.

4 Management 9/e - Chapter 154 Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  Perception. The process through which people receive and interpret information from the environment. People can perceive the same things or situations differently. People behave on the basis of their perceptions.

5 Management 9/e - Chapter 155 Figure 15.1 Perception and communication.

6 Management 9/e - Chapter 156 Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  Psychological contract Person-job fit begins here. A set of expectations held by an individual about what will be given and received in the employment relationship. An ideal work situation is one with a fair psychological contract.  Balance of contributions and inducements.

7 Management 9/e - Chapter 157 Figure 15.2 Components in the psychological contract.

8 Management 9/e - Chapter 158 Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  Perception and attribution. Attribution  The process of developing explanations for events. Fundamental attribution error  Occurs when observers blame another’s performance failures or problems on internal factors rather than external factors. Self-serving bias  Occurs because individuals blame their personal performance failures or problems on external factors and attribute their successes to internal factors.

9 Management 9/e - Chapter 159 Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  Perceptual tendencies and distortions: Stereotypes.  Occur when someone is identified with a group or category, and then oversimplified attributes associated with the group or category are used to describe the individual. Halo effects.  Occur when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation.

10 Management 9/e - Chapter 1510 Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  Perceptual tendencies and distortions: Selective perception.  The tendency to single out for attention those aspects of a situation or attributes of a person that reinforce or appear consistent with one’s existing beliefs, values, or needs. Projection.  The assignment of personal attributes to other individuals.

11 Management 9/e - Chapter 1511 Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior?  Perceptual tendencies and distortions: Projection.  The assignment of personal attributes to other individuals. Impression management  The systematic attempt to influence how others perceive us.

12 Management 9/e - Chapter 1512 Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace?  Personality The combination or overall profile of characteristics that makes one person unique from others.  “Big Five” personality traits: Extroversion.  The degree to which someone is outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Agreeableness.  The degree to which someone is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. Conscientiousness.  The degree to which someone is responsible, dependable, and careful.

13 Management 9/e - Chapter 1513 Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace?  “Big Five” personality traits: Emotional stability.  The degree to which someone is relaxed, secure, and unworried. Openness.  The degree to which someone is curious, receptive to new things, and open to change.

14 Management 9/e - Chapter 1514 Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace?  Other personality traits that affect work behavior: Locus of control.  The extent to which people believe they are in control of their destinies versus believing that that what happens to them is beyond their control. Authoritarianism.  The degree to which a person defers to authority and accepts status differences. Machiavellianism.  The extent to which someone is emotionally detached and manipulative in using power.

15 Management 9/e - Chapter 1515 Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace?  Other personality traits that affect work behavior: Problem-solving styles.  The ways people gather and evaluate information for decision making.. Self-monitoring.  The degree to which someone is able to adjust and modify behavior in response to the situation and external factors.

16 Management 9/e - Chapter 1516 Figure 15.3 The “Big Five” & five more personality dimensions that influence human behavior at work.

17 Management 9/e - Chapter 1517 Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior?  Attitude. A predisposition to act in a certain way toward people and things in one’s environment.  Components of attitudes: Cognitive component. Affective or emotional component. Behavioral component.  Cognitive dissonance. The discomfort a person feels when attitudes and behavior are inconsistent.

18 Management 9/e - Chapter 1518 Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior?  Job satisfaction. The degree to which an individual feels positively or negatively about various aspects of work. Common aspects of job satisfaction:  Pay.  Coworkers.  Supervision.  Work setting.  Advancement opportunities.  Workload.

19 Management 9/e - Chapter 1519 Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior?  Strong and positive relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism and turnover.  Satisfaction-related concepts having quality of work life implications … Job involvement  The extent to which an individual is dedicated to a job. Organizational commitment  Loyalty of an individual to the organization.

20 Management 9/e - Chapter 1520 Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior?  Job performance.  The quantity and quality of task accomplishments by an individual or group at work.  Individual performance equation: Performance begins with ability. Performance requires support. Performance involves effort. Performance = Ability x Support x Effort

21 Management 9/e - Chapter 1521 Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management?  Stress A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.  Stressors Things that cause stress Originate in work, personal, and nonwork situations. Have the potential to influence work attitudes, behavior, job performance, and health.

22 Management 9/e - Chapter 1522 Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management?  Work factors as potential stressors: Includes:  Excessively high or low task demands.  Role conflicts or ambiguities.  Poor interpersonal relationships.  Too slow or too fast career progress. Work-related stress syndromes:  Set up to fail.  Mistaken identity.

23 Management 9/e - Chapter 1523 Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management?  Personal factors as potential stressors: Includes needs, capabilities, and personality. Stressful behavior patterns of the Type A personality:  Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly.  Acting impatient, hurrying others, disliking waiting.  Doing, or trying to do, several things at once.  Feeling guilty when relaxing.  Trying to schedule more in less time.  Using nervous gestures such as a clenched fist.  Hurrying or interrupting the speech of others.

24 Management 9/e - Chapter 1524 Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management?  Nonwork factors as potential stressors: Includes:  Family events.  Economics.  Personal affairs. “Spill-over” effect on the stress an individual experiences at work.

25 Management 9/e - Chapter 1525 Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management?  Consequences of stress: Constructive stress.  Acts as a positive influence.  Can be energizing and performance enhancing. Destructive stress.  Acts as a negative influence.  Breaks down a person’s physical and mental systems.  Can lead to job burnout and/or workplace rage.

26 Management 9/e - Chapter 1526 Figure 15.4 Potential negative consequences of a destructive job stress-burnout cycle.

27 Management 9/e - Chapter 1527 Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management?  Personal wellness: The pursuit of personal and mental potential though a personal health- promotion program. A form of preventative stress management. Enables people to be better prepared to deal with stress.

28 COPYRIGHT Copyright 2008 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that named in Section 117 of the United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.


Download ppt "PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Management, 9/e John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. Prepared by: Jim LoPresti University of Colorado, Boulder Published by:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google