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Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 15-1 ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. JOHN R. SCHERMERHORN,

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Presentation on theme: "Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 15-1 ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. JOHN R. SCHERMERHORN,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. JOHN R. SCHERMERHORN, JR. MANAGEMENT 12 th Edition Chapter 15 Individual Behavior

2 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Planning Ahead — Chapter 15 Study Questions 1.How do perceptions influence individual behavior? 2.What should we know about personalities in the workplace? 3.How do attitudes influence individual behavior? 4.What are the dynamics of emotions, moods, and stress?

3 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 15 Learning Dashboard 1.Perception 1.Perception and psychological contracts 2.Perception and attribution 3.Perception tendencies and distortions 4.Perception and impression management 2.Personality 1.Big five personality dimensions 2.Myers-Briggs personality type indicator 3.Personal conception and emotional adjustment traits

4 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 15 Learning Dashboard 3.Attitudes 1.What is an attitude? 2.What is job satisfaction? 3.Job satisfaction and its outcomes 4.Emotions, Moods, and Stress 1.Emotions 2.Moods 3.Stress 4.Sources of stress

5 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Perception – The process through which people receive, organize and interpret information from the environment – People can perceive the same things or situations differently – People behave on the basis of their perceptions

6 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Psychological contract – Person-job fit begins here – A set of expectations held by an individual about what will be given and received in the employment relationship – An ideal work situation is one with a fair psychological contract Balance of contributions and inducements

7 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 15.1 Components in the psychological contract

8 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Perception and attribution – Attribution The process of developing explanations for events – Fundamental attribution error Occurs when observers blame another’s performance failures or problems on internal factors rather than external factors

9 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Perception and attribution – Self-serving bias Occurs because individuals blame their personal performance failures or problems on external factors and attribute their successes to internal factors

10 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Perceptual tendencies and distortions: – Stereotypes Occur when attributes commonly associated with a group are assigned to an individual – Racial and ethnic – Gender – Ability – Age – Others?

11 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Perceptual tendencies and distortions – Halo effects Occur when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation

12 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Perceptual tendencies and distortions: – Selective perception The tendency to define problems from ones’ own point of view – Projection The assignment of personal attributes to other individuals

13 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 1: Perception Perceptual tendencies and distortions: – Impression management The systematic attempt to influence how others perceive us – dress to convey positive appeal – flatter others to generate positive feelings – when conversing, make eye contact and smile – display a high level of energy

14 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Leaning Dashboard 2: Personality Personality – The profile of characteristics that makes one person unique from others

15 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Leaning Dashboard 2: Personality “ Big Five” personality traits: – Extroversion Being outgoing, sociable, and assertive – Agreeableness Being good-natured, cooperative, and trusting – Conscientiousness Being responsible, dependable, and careful – Emotional stability Being relaxed, secure, and unworried – Openness Being curious, receptive to new things, and open to change

16 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Leaning Dashboard 2: Personality Myers-Briggs Dimensions of Personality Extraversion/ Introversion - how we relate to others Sensation/ Intuition - how we gather information Thinking/ Feeling - how we evaluate information Judging/ Perceiving - how we react to the outside world

17 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Leaning Dashboard 2: Personality Other personality traits that affect work behavior: – Locus of control The extent to which one believes that what happens to them is within one’s control – Authoritarianism The degree to which a person defers to authority and accepts status differences – Machiavellianism The extent to which someone is emotionally detached and manipulative in using power

18 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Leaning Dashboard 2: Personality Other personality traits that affect work behavior: – Self-monitoring The degree to which someone is able to adjust and modify behavior in response to the external factors – Type A personality Orientation toward extreme achievement, impatience, and perfectionism

19 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 15.2 Common personality dimensions that influence human behavior at work

20 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 3: Attitudes Attitude – A predisposition to act in a certain way toward people and things in one’s environment Components of attitudes: – Cognitive component – Affective or emotional component – Behavioral component Cognitive dissonance – The discomfort a person feels when attitudes and behavior are inconsistent

21 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 3: Attitudes Job satisfaction The degree to which an individual feels positively or negatively about various aspects of work Common aspects of job satisfaction: Work itself Quality of supervision Coworkers Opportunities Pay Work conditions Security

22 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 3: Attitudes There is a strong and positive relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism and turnover Withdrawal behaviors

23 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 3: Attitudes Satisfaction-related concepts having quality of work life implications … Strong positive feeling about one’s job and the organization Employee engagement The extent to which an individual is dedicated to a job Job involvement Loyalty of an individual to the organization Organizational commitment Willingness to do more than the minimum required Organizational citizenship

24 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 3: Attitudes Is there a relationship between job satisfaction and performance? – Are satisfied workers more productive? – Are productive workers more satisfied? – Do rewards for productivity create satisfaction, influencing future performance?

25 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 3: Attitudes

26 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 4: Emotions, Moods, and Stress Emotions – Strong feelings directed toward someone or something Emotional intelligence – Ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively

27 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 4: Emotions, Moods, and Stress Moods – Generalized positive and negative feelings or states of mind Mood contagion – Spillover of one’s positive or negative moods onto others

28 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 4: Emotions, Moods, and Stress Stress – A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities Stressors – Things that cause stress – Originate in work, personal, and nonwork situations – Have the potential to influence work attitudes, behavior, job performance, and health

29 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 4: Emotions, Moods, and Stress Work factors as potential stressors: – Includes: Excessively high or low task demands Role conflicts or ambiguities Poor interpersonal relationships Too slow or too fast career progress – Work-related stress syndromes: Set up to fail Mistaken identity

30 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 4: Emotions, Moods, and Stress Nonwork factors as potential stressors: – Includes: Family events Economics Personal affairs – “Spill-over” effect on the stress an individual experiences at work

31 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 4: Emotions, Moods, and Stress Consequences of stress: – Constructive stress Acts as a positive influence Can be energizing and performance enhancing – Destructive stress Impairs performance Breaks down a person’s physical and mental systems Can lead to job burnout and/or workplace rage

32 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 15.3 Potential negative consequences of a destructive job stress-burnout cycle

33 Place Slide Title Text Here ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved Takeaway 4: Emotions, Moods, and Stress Personal wellness: – The pursuit of personal and mental potential though a personal health- promotion program – A form of preventative stress management – Enables people to be better prepared to deal with stress


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