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Chapter Three Foundations of Individual Behavior
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-2 Chapter Objectives Explain the nature of the individual- organizational relationship. Define personality and describe personality attributes that affect behavior in organizations. Discuss individual attitudes in organizations and how they affect behavior. Describe basic perceptual processes and the role of attributes in organizations.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-3 Chapter Objectives (continued) Discuss the causes and consequences of stress and describe how stress can be managed. Describe creativity and its role in organizations. Explain how workplace behaviors can directly or indirectly influence organizational effectiveness.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-4 Understanding Individuals in Organizations The Psychological Contract –A person’s set of expectations regarding what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return. Unlike a business contract, a psychological contract is not written on paper, nor are all of its terms explicitly negotiated. Nature of the Psychological Contract –Contributions and Inducements Individual’s contributions to the organization- effort, skills, ability, time, loyalty, Organization’s inducements to the individual, such as pay and career opportunities.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-5 Figure 3.1: The Psychological Contract
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-6 The Person-Job Fit Person-Job Fit –The extent to which the individual’s contributions match the organization’s inducements. –In theory, each employee has a specific set of needs that he or she wants fulfilled and a set of job-related behaviors and abilities to contribute. –If the organization can take perfect advantage of those behaviors and abilities and exactly fulfill the employee’s needs, it will have achieved a perfect person-job fit.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-7 The Nature of Individual Differences Individual Differences are personal attributes that vary from one person to another: Physical Psychological Emotional Individual differences are neither good nor bad. Whenever an organization attempts to assess or account for individual differences among its employees, it must also be sure to consider the situation in which behavior occurs.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-8 Personality and Individual Behavior Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another. Managers should strive to understand basic personality attributes and the ways they can affect people’s behavior in organizational situations, as well as their perceptions of and attitudes toward the organization.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-9 The “Big Five” Personality Traits In recent years, researchers have identified five fundamental personality traits that are especially relevant to organizations. Because these five traits are so important and receive so much attention, they are referred to as the “Big Five” personality traits.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-10 The “Big Five” Personality Traits (continued) Agreeableness –The ability to get along with others Conscientiousness –The number of goals on which a person focuses Negative Emotionality –A trait characterized by moodiness and insecurity
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-11 The “Big Five” Personality Traits (continued) Extraversion –The quality of being comfortable with relationships; the opposite extreme, introversion, is characterized by more social discomfort Openness –The capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of learning new information
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-12 Figure 3.2: The “Big Five” Personality Framework
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-13 The Myers-Briggs Framework The Myers-Briggs Framework differentiates people in terms of four general dimensions. 1.Extroversion (E) Versus Introversion (I) 2.Sensing (S) Versus Intuition (N) 3.Thinking (T) Versus Feeling (F) 4.Judging (J) Verses Perceiving (P) To use this framework, the organization has people complete a questionnaire designed to measure their personalities on each dimension.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-14 Other Personality Traits at Work Locus of Control –The extent to which people believe their circumstances are a function of either their own actions or external factors beyond their control. Self-Efficacy –A person’s beliefs about his or her capabilities to perform a task. Authoritarianism –The belief that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social systems such as organizations.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-15 Other Personality Traits at Work (continued) Machiavellianism –People who behave to gain power and control the behavior of others. Self-Esteem –The extent to which a person believes she or he is a worthwhile and deserving individual. Risk Propensity –The degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-16 Emotional Intelligence The concept of emotional intelligence refers to the extent to which people: –are self-aware –can manage their emotions –can motivate themselves –can express empathy for others –possess social skills
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-17 Emotional Intelligence (continued) Self-Awareness –The basis for the other components that refers to one’s capacity for being aware of how one is feeling. Managing Emotions –One’s capacity to balance anxiety, fear, and anger so they do not overly interfere with getting things accomplished. Motivating Oneself –The ability to remain optimistic and continue striving in the face of setbacks, barriers, and failure..
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-18 Emotional Intelligence (continued) Empathy –A person’s ability to understand how others are feeling even without being explicitly told. Social Skills –This refers to a person’s ability to get along with others and to establish positive relationships.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-19 Attitudes A person’s complexes of beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or other people. Important because they are the mechanism through which most people express their feelings. 3 components: 1.affective component – reflects feelings and emotions an individual has toward a situation. 2.cognitive component – derives from knowledge an individual has toward a situation. 3.intentional component – reflects how an individual expects to behave toward or in the situation.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-20 Cognitive Dissonance The anxiety a person experiences when she or her simultaneously possesses two sets of knowledge or perceptions that are contradictory or incongruent. –For example, a person who has vowed to never work for a large company but instead open a small firm, may find herself seeking a job with a large company as the result of financial setbacks. –To reduce this dissonance, the individual might tell herself that the situation is only temporary and she can go back out on her own in the near future.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-21 Work-Related Attitudes Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction –The extent to which a person is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work. While high levels of satisfaction may not lead to high levels of performance, satisfied employees tend to be absent less often, make positive contributions, and stay with the organization. Organizational Commitment –A person’s identification with and attachment to the organization. A person with high levels of commitment is likely to see herself as a true member of the organization and overlook minor sources of dissatisfaction.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-22 Affect and Mood in Organizations Positive Affectivity –People who possess positive affectivity are upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well- being, and see things in a positive light. Negative Affectivity –People characterized by negative affectivity are generally downbeat and pessimistic, see things in a negative light, and seem to be perpetually in a bad mood.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-23 Perception and Individual Behavior Perception –The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment. Basic Perceptual Processes –Selective perception The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs. –Stereotyping The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-24 Figure 3.3: Basic Perceptual Processes
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-25 Stress and Individual Behavior Stress –An individual’s response to a strong stimulus (a stressor.) Type A vs. Type B Individuals –Type A individuals are extremely competitive, are very devoted to work, and have a strong sense of time urgency. –Type B individuals are less competitive, are less devoted to work, and have a weaker sense of time urgency.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-26 Figure 3.4: The General Adaptation Syndrome
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-27 Causes and Consequences of Stress Causes of Stress –Physical Demands Stressors associated with the job setting (i.e., too hot, too cold, poorly designed office, too little social interaction, etc.) –Role Demands Stress can result from either role ambiguity or role conflict that people experience in groups. –Interpersonal Demands Stressors associated with relationships that confront people in organizations. For example, group pressures regarding restrictions of output and norm conformity can lead to stress.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-28 Causes and Consequences of Stress (continued) Consequences of Stress –The results of stress may be positive or negative. –The negative consequences may be behavioral, psychological, or medical. Burnout Burnout is a sense of exhaustion that develops when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-29 Creativity in Organizations Creativity –The ability to generate new ideas of conceive of new perspectives on existing ideas.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-30 Figure 3.5: The Creative Process
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-31 Types of Workplace Behavior Performance Behaviors –The total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects the individual to display. –They derive from the psychological contract. For some jobs performance behaviors can be narrowly defined and easily measured (i.e. an assembly line worker,who remains at the workstation and attaches parts.) For many other jobs, performance behavior is more diverse and much more difficult to assess (a researcher at a major pharmaceutical company.)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3-32 Types of Workplace Behavior (continued) Withdrawal Behaviors –Absenteeism occurs when an individual does not show up for work. –Turnover occurs when people quit their jobs. Dysfunctional Behaviors –Work-related behaviors that detract from organizational performance. Organizational Citizenship –Extent to which the individual's behavior makes a positive overall contribution to the organization.
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