Presentation on theme: "Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations Mgmt 371 Chapter FifteenBasic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations
2Understanding Individuals in Organizations The Psychological ContractThe overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return.The unwritten expectations that employees and employers have about the nature of their work relationshipsQuid pro quoLoosely defines what actions are “fair” in the workplace.Both tangible items and intangible items can affect the psychological contract.
3Psychological Contracts (Employee Expectations) Generally, employees expect employers to provide:Competitive wagesCompetitive benefitsJob securityCareer development opportunitiesFlexibility to balance family and workIf the psychological contract is not altered, the employer may expect greater employee commitment (loyalty).
4Psychological Contracts (Employer Expectations) Generally, employers expect employees to provide:Effort.Ability.Loyalty.Skills.Time.Competencies.
5Factors Adversely Affecting Individual & Organizational Relations Mergers and acquisitionsSelf-employment and contingent workLess management job tenureJob insecurity (economic anxiety)DownsizingGlobal competitionJob obsolescenceExecutive pay v. the plight of the workers.
6Understanding Individuals in Organizations (Person-Job Fit) The Person-Job FitReasons for poor person-job fit:Organizational selection procedures are imperfect.Both people and organizations change over time.Adopting new technologies changes the skills needed by employees.Each individual is unique and each job is unique.
7Understanding Individuals in Organizations (Individual Differences) Personal attributes that vary from one person to another.PhysicalPsychologicalEmotional.
8Personality and Individual Behavior The relatively stable set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another.
9The “Big Five” Personality Traits Agreeableness—a person’s ability to get along with others.Conscientiousness—the number of goals on which a person focuses.Negative emotionality—the extent to which a person is calm, resilient, and secure.Extraversion—a person’s comfort level with relationships.Openness—a person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.
11The Myers-Briggs Framework The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)A popular questionnaire that some organizations use to assess personality types.Is a useful method for determining communication styles and interaction preferences.Has questionable validity and reliability.Personality TypesExtraversion (E) versus Introversion (I)Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N)Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)
12Other Personality Traits at Work Locus of Control (J.B. Rotter)The extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them.Internal locus of control—individuals who believe they are in control of their lives.External locus of control—individuals believe that external forces dictate what happen to them.
13Other Personality Traits at Work Self-Efficacy (Albert Bandura)A person’s belief about his or her capabilities to perform a task. High self-efficacy individuals believe they can perform well while low self-efficacy individuals doubt their ability to perform.
14Other Personality Traits at Work AuthoritarianismThe extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social organizations.MachiavellianismBehavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others.
15Other Personality Traits at Work Self-EsteemThe extent to which a person believes she/he is a worthwhile individual.Risk PropensityThe degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.
16Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence, or EQThe extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills.Dimensions of EQSelf-awarenessManaging emotionMotivating oneselfEmpathySocial skill
17Attitudes and Individual Behavior Attitudes - Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people. Attitudinal components:Affective componentFeelings and emotions toward a situation (i.e., how we feel).Cognitive componentPerceived knowledge (i.e., why we feel the way we feel).Intentional componentExpected behavior in a given situation (i.e., what we intend do about the situation).
18Attitudes and Individual Behavior Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger)The conflict individuals experience among their own attitudes caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously.The affective and cognitive components of the individual’s attitude are in conflict with intended behavior.The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a fundamental cognitive drive to reduce this dissonance by modifying an existing belief, or rejecting one of the contradictory ideas.
19Work-Related Attitudes Job Satisfaction or DissatisfactionAn attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work.Job Satisfaction and Work BehaviorsJob satisfaction is influenced by personal, group, and organizational factors.Satisfied employees are absent less often, make positive contributions, and stay with the organization.Dissatisfied employees are absent more often, may experience stress which disrupts coworkers, and may be continually looking for another job.High levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily lead to high job performance.
20Work-Related Attitudes Organizational Commitment - An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to an organization.Organizational Commitment and Work BehaviorsEmployee commitment strengthens with an individual’s age, years with the organization, sense of job security, and participation in decision making.Committed employees have highly reliable habits, plan a longer tenure with the organization, and muster more effort in performance.
21Affect and Mood in Organizations Positive AffectivityA tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a positive light, and seem to be in a good mood.Negative AffectivityA tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic, tend to see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood.
22Perception and Individual Behavior The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information.Selective PerceptionThe process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs.If selective perception causes someone to ignore important information it can become quite detrimental.
24Perception and Individual Behavior StereotypingThe process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute (gender, race, profession, school, e.g.).Stereotyping may cost the organization valuable talent, violate federal anti-bias laws, and is likely unethical.
25Perception and Attribution A mechanism through which we observe behavior and attribute a cause to it.Ways in Which Attributions Are Formed:ConsensusConsistencyDistinctiveness
26Stress and Individual Behavior A person’s response to a strong stimulus (i.e., a stressor).General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)The general cycle of the stress process.Stage 1 AlarmStage 2 ResistanceStage 3 Exhaustion
29Causes and Consequences of Stress Negative personal consequencesBehavioralPsychologicalMedicalNegative work-related consequencesPoor quality work output and lower productivity.Job dissatisfaction, low morale, and a lack of commitment.Withdrawal through indifference and absenteeism.BurnoutA feeling of exhaustion that may develop when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.
30Stress and Individual Behavior (Type A Personality) Personality TypesType A personalityExtremely competitive (aggressive), devoted to work, have a strong sense of time urgency (impatient).Have a lot of drive and want to accomplish as much as possible as quickly as possible.Prone to stress.
31Stress and Individual Behavior (Type B Personality) Personality TypesType B PersonalityLess competitive, less devoted to work, have a weaker sense of time urgency.Less likely to experience personal stress or to come into conflict with other people.More likely to have a balanced, relaxed approach to life.
32Managing Stress Stress Management Strategies for Individuals Regular exercisereduces tension and stress, and improves self-confidence and feelings of optimism.Relaxationallows individuals to adapt and better deal with their stress.Time managementreduces stress by prioritizing activities to accomplish them in their order of importance.Support groupssocializing away from work reduces stress.
33Managing Stress Stress Management Strategies for Organizations Organizations are partly responsible for stress.Organizations also bear the costs of stress-related claims.Organizational wellness/stress management programs can be used to promote healthful employee activities and derive the benefits of increased organizational productivity.
34Creativity in Organizations The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives in existing ideas.The Creative IndividualBackground experiences and creativityMany creative individuals were reared in creative environments.Personal traits and creativityCreative persons have personal traits of openness, an attraction to complexity, high levels of energy, independence, autonomy, strong self-confidence, and a strong belief in their own creativity.
35Creativity in Organizations The Creative IndividualCognitive abilities and creativityMost creative people are highly intelligent.They are both divergent and convergent thinkers, a skill they use to see differences and similarities in situations, phenomena, and events.
36The Creative Process Preparation Incubation Formal education and training is used to “get up to speed.”Experiences on the job provide additional knowledge and ideas.IncubationA period of less intense conscious concentration during which knowledge and ideas acquired, during reparation, mature and develop.Incubation can be helped by pauses in rational thought.
37The Creative Process Insight Verification A spontaneous breakthrough in which the creative person achieves a new understanding of some problem or situation.Patterns of thought coalesce into a new understanding.VerificationDetermines the validity or truthfulness of the insight.Tests are conducted and prototypes are built to see if the insight leads to the expected results.
38The Creative Process Enhancing Creativity in Organizations Make creativity part of the organization’s culture.Set goals for revenues from creative products and services.Reward creativity; refrain from punishing creative failures.Some ideas work out as expected, others don’t work out as intended.
39Types of Workplace Behavior A pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness.Performance BehaviorsThe total set of work-related behaviors an organization expects an individual to display.
40Types of Workplace Behavior Withdrawal BehaviorsAbsenteeism occurs when an individual does not show up for work when expected for legitimate or feigned reasons.Absenteeism may be a symptom of other work-related problems.Turnover occurs when individuals quit their jobs for work-related or personal reasons.
41Types of Workplace Behavior Organizational CitizenshipThe behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization.The determinants of organizational citizenship is a complex mosaic of individual, social, and organizational variables.The personality, attitudes, and needs of the individual.The social context, or work group, in which the individual works.An organization (and its culture) capable of rewarding citizenship behaviors.