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Slide content created by Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter Fifteen Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–2 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Explain the nature of the individual-organization relationship. 2.Define personality and describe personality attributes that affect behavior in organizations. 3.Discuss individual attitudes in organizations and how they affect behavior. 4.Describe basic perceptual processes and the role of attributions in organizations. 5.Discuss the causes and consequences of stress and describe how it can be managed. 6.Describe creativity and its role in organizations. 7.Explain how workplace behaviors can directly or indirectly influence organizational effectiveness.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–3 Understanding Individuals in Organizations The Psychological Contract –The overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–4 Figure 15.1: The Psychological Contract
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–5 Understanding Individuals in Organizations (cont’d) The Person-Job Fit –Reasons for poor person-job fit: Organizational selection procedures are imperfect. Both people and organizations change over time. Adopting new technologies changes the skills needed by employees. Each individual is unique and each job is unique. Individual Differences –Personal attributes that vary from one person to another. Physical, psychological, or emotional.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–6 Personality and Individual Behavior Personality –The relatively stable set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another. The “Big Five” Personality Traits –Agreeableness—a person’s ability to get along with others. –Conscientiousness—the number of goals on which a person focuses. –Negative emotionality—the extent to which a person is calm, resilient, and secure. –Extraversion—a person’s comfort level with relationships. –Openness—a person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–7 Figure 15.2: The “Big Five” Model of Personality
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–8 The Myers-Briggs Framework The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) –A popular questionnaire that some organizations use to assess personality types. Is a useful method for determining communication styles and interaction preferences. Has questionable validity and reliability. Personality Types –Extraversion (E) versus Introversion (I) –Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N) –Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F) –Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–9 Other Personality Traits at Work Locus of Control –The extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them. Internal locus of control—individuals who believe they are in control of their lives. External locus of control—individuals believe that external forces dictate what happen to them. Self-Efficacy –A person’s belief about his or her capabilities to perform a task. High self-efficacy individuals believe they can perform well while low self- efficacy individuals doubt their ability to perform.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–10 Other Personality Traits at Work (cont’d) Authoritarianism –The extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social organizations. Machiavellianism –Behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–11 Other Personality Traits at Work (cont’d) Self-Esteem –The extent to which a person believes she/he is a worthwhile individual. Risk Propensity –The degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–12 Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence, or EQ –The extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills. Dimensions of EQ –Self-awareness –Managing emotion –Motivating oneself –Empathy –Social skill
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–13 Attitudes and Individual Behavior Attitudes –Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people. Attitudinal Components –Affective component Feelings and emotions toward a situation (i.e., how we feel). –Cognitive component Perceived knowledge (i.e., why we feel the way we feel). –Intentional component Expected behavior in a given situation (i.e., what we intend do about the situation).
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–14 Attitudes and Individual Behavior Cognitive Dissonance –The conflict individuals experience among their own attitudes. –The affective and cognitive components of the individual’s attitude are in conflict with intended behavior.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–15 Work-Related Attitudes Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction –An attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work. Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors –Job satisfaction is influenced by personal, group, and organizational factors. –Satisfied employees are absent less often, make positive contributions, and stay with the organization. –Dissatisfied employees are absent more often, may experience stress which disrupts coworkers, and may be continually looking for another job. –High levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily lead to high job performance.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–16 Work-Related Attitudes (cont’d) Organizational Commitment –An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to an organization. Organizational Commitment and Work Behaviors –Employee commitment strengthens with an individual’s age, years with the organization, sense of job security, and participation in decision making. –Committed employees have highly reliable habits, plan a longer tenure with the organization, and muster more effort in performance.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–17 Affect and Mood in Organizations Positive Affectivity –A tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a positive light, and seem to be in a good mood. Negative Affectivity –A tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic, tend to see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–18 Perception and Individual Behavior Perception –The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information. Selective Perception –The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs. –If selective perception causes someone to ignore important information it can become quite detrimental.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–19 Figure 15.3: Perceptual Processes
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–20 Perception and Individual Behavior Stereotyping –The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute (e.g., gender and race). –Stereotyping may cost the organization valuable talent, violate federal anti-bias laws, and is likely unethical.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–21 Perception and Attribution Attribution –A mechanism through which we observe behavior and attribute a cause to it. Ways in Which Attributions Are Formed: –Consensus –Consistency –Distinctiveness
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–22 Stress and Individual Behavior Stress –A person’s response to a strong stimulus (i.e., a stressor). General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) –The general cycle of the stress process. –Stage 1 Alarm –Stage 2 Resistance –Stage 3 Exhaustion
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–23 Stress and Individual Behavior (cont’d) Personality Types –Type A personality Extremely competitive (aggressive), devoted to work, have a strong sense of time urgency (impatient). Have a lot of drive and want to accomplish as much as possible as quickly as possible. –Type B personality Less competitive, less devoted to work, have a weaker sense of time urgency. Less likely to experience personal stress or to come into conflict with other people. More likely to have a balanced, relaxed approach to life.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–24 Figure 15.4: The General Adaptation Syndrome
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–25 Figure 15.5: Causes of Work Stress
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–26 Causes and Consequences of Stress (cont’d) Consequences of Stress –Negative personal consequences Behavioral Psychological Medical –Negative work-related consequences Poor quality work output and lower productivity. Job dissatisfaction, low morale, and a lack of commitment. Withdrawal through indifference and absenteeism. –Burnout A feeling of exhaustion that may develop when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–27 Managing Stress Stress Management Strategies for Individuals –Regular exercise reduces tension and stress, and improves self- confidence and feelings of optimism. –Relaxation allows individuals to adapt and better deal with their stress. –Time management reduces stress by prioritizing activities to accomplish them in their order of importance. –Support groups socializing away from work reduces stress.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–28 Managing Stress (cont’d) Stress Management Strategies for Organizations –Organizations are partly responsible for stress. –Organizations also bear the costs of stress-related claims. –Organizational wellness/stress management programs can be used to promote healthful employee activities and derive the benefits of increased organizational productivity.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–29 Creativity in Organizations Creativity –The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives in existing ideas. The Creative Individual –Background experiences and creativity Many creative individuals were reared in creative environments. –Personal traits and creativity Creative persons have personal traits of openness, an attraction to complexity, high levels of energy, independence, autonomy, strong self-confidence, and a strong belief in their own creativity.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–30 Creativity in Organizations The Creative Individual –Cognitive abilities and creativity Most creative people are highly intelligent. They are both divergent and convergent thinkers, a skill they use to see differences and similarities in situations, phenomena, and events.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–31 The Creative Process Preparation –Formal education and training is used to “get up to speed.” –Experiences on the job provide additional knowledge and ideas. Incubation –A period of less intense conscious concentration during which knowledge and ideas acquired, during reparation, mature and develop. –Incubation can be helped by pauses in rational thought.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–32 The Creative Process (cont’d) Insight –A spontaneous breakthrough in which the creative person achieves a new understanding of some problem or situation. –Patterns of thought coalesce into a new understanding. Verification –Determines the validity or truthfulness of the insight. –Tests are conducted and prototypes are built to see if the insight leads to the expected results.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–33 The Creative Process (cont’d) Enhancing Creativity in Organizations –Make creativity part of the organization’s culture. Set goals for revenues from creative products and services. –Reward creativity; refrain from punishing creative failures. Some ideas work out as expected, others don’t work out as intended.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–34 Types of Workplace Behavior Workplace Behavior –A pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness. Performance Behaviors –The total set of work-related behaviors an organization expects an individual to display.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–35 Types of Workplace Behavior Withdrawal Behaviors –Absenteeism occurs when an individual does not show up for work when expected for legitimate or feigned reasons. –Absenteeism may be a symptom of other work-related problems. –Turnover occurs when individuals quit their jobs for work-related or personal reasons.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–36 Types of Workplace Behavior (cont’d) Organizational Citizenship –The behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization. –The determinants of organizational citizenship is a complex mosaic of individual, social, and organizational variables. The personality, attitudes, and needs of the individual. The social context, or work group, in which the individual works. An organization (and its culture) capable of rewarding citizenship behaviors.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–37 Key Terms contributions psychological contract inducements individual differences personality openness conscientiousness negative emotionality extraversion “Big Five” personality traits locus of control self-efficacy authoritarianism Machiavellianism self-esteem risk propensity attitudes cognitive dissonance emotional intelligence (EQ) job satisfaction or dissatisfaction
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15–38 Key Terms organizational commitment negative affectivity perception selective perception stereotyping attribution stress Type B Type A General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) burnout creativity workplace behavior absenteeism turnover organizational citizenship dysfunctional behaviors
15–1 The Psychological Contract Individual Contributions Organizational Inducements The Psychological Contract - set of expectations held by an individual.
CHAPTER 15 Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin.
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