3 - 3Introduction Job satisfaction is based on attitudes, which in turn are shaped by values and ethics Self-concept is ones attitude about oneself Values do tend to influence, not necessarily affect, behavior, including whether or not behavior is ethical
3 - 4Attitude Attitude – a strong belief or feeling toward people, things, and situations They are not quick judgments we change easily but we can change our attitudes People interpret our attitudes by our behavior Employers place great emphasis on attitude Employee attitudes affect customer attitudes Attitudes are primarily developed through experiences
3 - 5Management Attitudes Theory X and Theory Y Theory X – the attitude that employees dislike work and must be closely supervised to get them to do their work Theory Y – the attitude that employees like to work and do not need to be closely supervised to get them to do their work Pygmalion Effect Supervisors attitudes and expectations of employees and how they treat them largely determine their performance
3 - 6 Changing Your Attitudes 1. Be aware of your attitudes 2. Do not harbor negative thoughts 3. Keep an open mind
3 - 7 Shaping and Changing Employee Attitudes Do not harbor negative thoughts Changing Your Attitudes Be a positive role model Provide consequences Give employees feedback Be aware of Your attitudes Keep an open mind Shaping and Changing Employee Attitudes Accentuate positive conditions
3 - 8 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction – a set of attitudes toward work It is what most employees want from their jobs Job satisfaction affects absenteeism and turnover, which affect performance Job satisfaction survey – process of determining employee attitudes about the job and work environment
3 - 9 Improving job satisfaction may lead to better human relations and organizational performance by creating a win-win situation.
Determinants of Job Satisfaction 4. Supervision 5. Coworkers 6. Attitude toward work 2. Pay 3. Growth and upward mobility 1. The work itself
3 - 11Self-Concept Self-concept – your overall attitude about yourself Also called: Self-esteem Self-image Self-concept includes perceptions about several aspects of oneself Having a positive self-concept is part of emotional intelligence
3 - 12Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy – your belief in your capability to perform in a specific situation Self-efficacy affects your- effort persistence expressed interest the difficulty of goals you select
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Your expectations affect your performance Self-fulfilling prophecy – occurs when your expectations affect your success or failure If you think you will be successful, you will be If you think you will fail, you will, because you will fulfill your expectations Your self-efficacy becomes your self-fulfilling prophecy
Attribution Theory Attribution – the perception of the cause of behavior as being internal or external Internal behavior – is within the control of the person External behavior – is out of the persons control We make judgments about why people do the things they do by using: distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus Attribution theory is how we perceive the causes of behavior, which in turn affect our subsequent choices and behaviors.
General Guidelines to Improve Your Self-Concept 1. View mistakes as learning experiences 2. Accept failure and bounce back 3. Control negative behavior and thoughts 4. Use any religious or spiritual beliefs you have that can help you develop a more positive self-concept
Action Plan for Building a Positive Self-Concept Step 1. Identify your strengths and areas that need improvement Step 2. Set short and long term goals and visualize them Step 3. Develop a plan and implement it
Values (1 of 2) Values – are the things that have worth for or are important to the individual Concern what should be Influence the choices we make among alternative behaviors Value system – the set of standards by which an individual lives
Values (2 of 2) Values direct the form that motivated behavior will take Values help shape your attitudes Values are developed in much the same way as attitudes Values are more stable than attitudes
Spirituality (1 of 2) Ones spirituality is the essence of who he or she is It defines the inner self- separate from the body including the physical and intellectual self The quality of being spiritual, of recognizing the intangible, life-affirming force in self and all human beings
Spirituality (2 of 2) It is a state of intimate relationship with the inner self of higher values and morality It is a recognition of the truth of the inner nature of people It does not apply to particular religions, although the values of some religions may be part of a persons spiritual focus
Spirituality in the Workplace (1 of 2) It is about people seeing their work: as a spiritual path as an opportunity to grow personally as a way to contribute to society in a meaningful way It is about learning to be more caring and compassionate with: fellow employees bosses subordinates customers
Spirituality in the Workplace (2 of 2) It is about integrity being true to oneself telling the truth to others Can refer to an individuals attempts to live his or her values more fully in the workplace Can refer to the ways organizations structure themselves to support the spiritual growth of employees
Guidelines for Leading from a Spiritual Perspective 1. Know thyself 2. Act with authenticity and congruency 3. Respect and honor the beliefs of others 4. Be as trusting as you can be 5. Maintain a spiritual practice
3 - 24Ethics Ethics – the moral standard of right and wrong behavior Ethical behavior is affected by: Personality traits and attitudes Moral development The situation
Levels of Moral Development 3. Postconventional Behavior is motivated by universal principles of right and wrong, regardless of the expectations of the leader or group. One seeks to balance the concerns for self with those of others and the common good. 2. Conventional Living up to expectations of acceptable behavior defined by others motivates behavior to fulfill duties and obligations. Common for followers to copy the behavior of the leaders and group. 1. Preconventional Self-interest motivates behavior to meet ones own needs to gain rewards while following rules and obedient to authority to avoid punishment.
Moral justification is the process of reinterpreting immoral behavior in terms of a higher purpose.
Justifications for Unethical Behavior (1 of 2) Displacement of responsibility The process of blaming ones unethical behavior on others Diffusion of responsibility The process of the group using the unethical behavior with no one person being held responsible Advantageous comparison The process of comparing oneself to others who are worst
Justifications for Unethical Behavior (2 of 2) Disregard or distortion of consequences The process of minimizing the harm caused by the unethical behavior Attribution of blame The process of claiming the unethical behavior was caused by someone elses behavior Euphemistic labeling The process of using cosmetic words to make the behavior sound acceptable
Human Relations Guides to Ethical Decisions When making decisions, try to meet the goal of human relations by creating a win-win situation for all stakeholders
Global Ethics Different countries have different levels of ethical standards Managers typically have two choices: Universalism – make the same ethical decisions across countries Relativism –decisions to be made based on the ethical standard of the country MNCs can choose their level of global corporate social responsibility (GCSR)
Levels of Global Corporate Social Responsibility (GCSR) and Action