2Attitudes, Self-Concept, Values, and Ethics 3Attitudes, Self-Concept, Values, and Ethics
3IntroductionJob satisfaction is based on attitudes, which in turn are shaped by values and ethicsSelf-concept is one’s attitude about oneselfValues do tend to influence, not necessarily affect, behavior, including whether or not behavior is ethical
4AttitudeAttitude – a strong belief or feeling toward people, things, and situationsThey are not quick judgments we change easily but we can change our attitudesPeople interpret our attitudes by our behaviorEmployers place great emphasis on attitudeEmployee attitudes affect customer attitudesAttitudes are primarily developed through experiences
5Management Attitudes Theory X and Theory Y Pygmalion Effect Theory X – the attitude that employees dislike work and must be closely supervised to get them to do their workTheory Y – the attitude that employees like to work and do not need to be closely supervised to get them to do their workPygmalion EffectSupervisors’ attitudes and expectations of employees and how they treat them largely determine their performance
6Changing Your Attitudes Be aware of your attitudesDo not harbor negative thoughtsKeep an open mind
7Shaping and Changing Employee Attitudes Changing Your AttitudesDo not harbor negative thoughtsBe aware ofYour attitudesKeep anopen mindShaping and Changing Employee AttitudesAccentuatepositive conditionsBe a positiverole modelGive employeesfeedbackProvide consequences
8Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction – a set of attitudes toward work It is what most employees want from their jobsJob satisfaction affects absenteeism and turnover, which affect performanceJob satisfaction survey – process of determining employee attitudes about the job and work environment
9Improving job satisfaction may lead to better human relations and organizational performance by creating a win-win situation.
10Determinants of Job Satisfaction 4. Supervision5. Coworkers6. Attitudetoward work2. Pay3. Growth andupwardmobility1. The workitself
11Self-Concept Self-concept – your overall attitude about yourself Also called:Self-esteemSelf-imageSelf-concept includes perceptions about several aspects of oneselfHaving a positive self-concept is part of emotional intelligence
12Self-EfficacySelf-efficacy – your belief in your capability to perform in a specific situationSelf-efficacy affects your-effortpersistenceexpressed interestthe difficulty of goals you select
13Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Your expectations affect your performanceSelf-fulfilling prophecy – occurs when your expectations affect your success or failureIf you think you will be successful, you will beIf you think you will fail, you will, because you will fulfill your expectationsYour self-efficacy becomes your self-fulfilling prophecy
14Attribution TheoryAttribution – the perception of the cause of behavior as being internal or externalInternal behavior – is within the control of the personExternal behavior – is out of the person’s controlWe make judgments about why people do the things they do by using: distinctiveness, consistency, and consensusAttribution theory is how we perceive the causes of behavior, which in turn affect our subsequent choices and behaviors.
15General Guidelines to Improve Your Self-Concept View mistakes as learning experiencesAccept failure and bounce backControl negative behavior and thoughtsUse any religious or spiritual beliefs you have that can help you develop a more positive self-concept
16Action Plan for Building a Positive Self-Concept Step 1. Identify your strengths and areas that need improvementStep 2. Set short and long term goals and visualize themStep 3. Develop a plan and implement it
17Values (1 of 2)Values – are the things that have worth for or are important to the individualConcern what “should be”Influence the choices we make among alternative behaviorsValue system – the set of standards by which an individual lives
18Values (2 of 2)Values direct the form that motivated behavior will takeValues help shape your attitudesValues are developed in much the same way as attitudesValues are more stable than attitudes
19Spirituality (1 of 2)One’s spirituality is the essence of who he or she isIt defines the inner self-separate from the bodyincluding the physical and intellectual selfThe quality of being spiritual, of recognizing the intangible, life-affirming force in self and all human beings
20Spirituality (2 of 2)It is a state of intimate relationship with the inner self of higher values and moralityIt is a recognition of the truth of the inner nature of peopleIt does not apply to particular religions, although the values of some religions may be part of a person’s spiritual focus
21Spirituality in the Workplace (1 of 2) It is about people seeing their work:as a spiritual pathas an opportunity to grow personallyas a way to contribute to society in a meaningful wayIt is about learning to be more caring and compassionate with:fellow employeesbossessubordinatescustomers
22Spirituality in the Workplace (2 of 2) It is about integritybeing true to oneselftelling the truth to othersCan refer to an individual’s attempts to live his or her values more fully in the workplaceCan refer to the ways organizations structure themselves to support the spiritual growth of employees
23Guidelines for Leading from a Spiritual Perspective Know thyselfAct with authenticity and congruencyRespect and honor the beliefs of othersBe as trusting as you can beMaintain a spiritual practice
24Ethics Ethics – the moral standard of right and wrong behavior Ethical behavior is affected by:Personality traits and attitudesMoral developmentThe situation
25Levels of Moral Development 3. PostconventionalBehavior is motivated by universal principles of right and wrong, regardless of the expectations of the leader or group. One seeks to balance the concerns for self with those of others and the common good.2. ConventionalLiving up to expectations of acceptable behavior defined by others motivates behavior to fulfill duties and obligations. Common for followers to copy the behavior of the leaders and group.1. PreconventionalSelf-interest motivates behavior to meet one’s own needs to gain rewards while following rules and obedient to authority to avoid punishment.
26Moral justification is the process of reinterpreting immoral behavior in terms of a higher purpose.
27Justifications for Unethical Behavior (1 of 2) Displacement of responsibilityThe process of blaming one’s unethical behavior on othersDiffusion of responsibilityThe process of the group using the unethical behavior with no one person being held responsibleAdvantageous comparisonThe process of comparing oneself to others who are worst
28Justifications for Unethical Behavior (2 of 2) Disregard or distortion of consequencesThe process of minimizing the harm caused by the unethical behaviorAttribution of blameThe process of claiming the unethical behavior was caused by someone else’s behaviorEuphemistic labelingThe process of using “cosmetic” words to make the behavior sound acceptable
29Human Relations Guides to Ethical Decisions When making decisions, try to meet the goal of human relations by creating a win-win situation for all stakeholders
30Global EthicsDifferent countries have different levels of ethical standardsManagers typically have two choices:Universalism – make the same ethical decisions across countriesRelativism –decisions to be made based on the ethical standard of the countryMNCs can choose their level of global corporate social responsibility (GCSR)
31Levels of Global Corporate Social Responsibility (GCSR) and Action