Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7 : Response to Crisis: Absolutism"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 7 : Response to Crisis: Absolutism 8. France Under Louis XIV:A. Louis XIV: best example of absolutism in the 17thcentury; all other European monarchs tried to imitate his courtB. Richelieu and Mazarin:- Louis XIII and Louis XIV both come to the throne at youngages, therefore the monarch was kept in tact by their ministers,Richelieu and Mazarin.- Richelieu (Louis XIII minister): strengthened the power ofthe monarch, took Huguenots political and military rights because they were seen as a threat; had spies to uncover plots by nobles and then executed them- Mazarin (Louis XIV minister): crushed a revolt led by thenobility; result the people realized French stability lay in a strong monarch.
3C. Louis XIV Comes to Power: - Marzin dies; Louis XIV takes over supreme power; becomes known as the Sun King – the light of his people
4- Palace Louis had built was at Versailles. It served 3 . Government and Religion:- Palace Louis had built was at Versailles. It served 3purposes: 1. personal household to the king 2. chief officesof the state are located their and 3. subjects came to findfavors for themselves- Louis removed his biggest threat, the nobles and royalprinces, by keeping them out of politics and keeping thembusy with court life: Louis did not share his authority withanyone- Louis was anti-Protestant; revokes the Edict of Nantes; heordered all Huguenot churches to be destroyed and all theirschools to be closed; Result: 200,000 Huguenots fled toEngland, the United Provinces, and the German states
6E. The Economy and War:- Jean-Baptiste Colbert: Louis’ finance minister; followed ideas of mercantilism; granted subsidies to new industries; built roads and canals; raised tariffs on foreign goods – allowed Louis to build palace, to maintain his court, and to fight wars- War: Had a 400,000 man standing army; other European nations had to form coalitions to prevent him from dominatingF. Legacy of Louis XIV:- left France with great debt and surrounded by enemies
8Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe A. After the Thirty Years Wars, Prussia and Austria emerged as great European PowersPrussia: Fredrick William the Great Elector laid thefoundation for Prussia.- Prussia was a small territory; no natural barriers for defense, therefore he built the fourth largest standing army in Europe.To maintain the army and his own power, Fredrick William set up the General War Commissariat; it levied taxes for the growth of the army and stateEventually Frederick William and his son are given the title of king.
10Austria: The Hapsburgs had lost the Holy Roman Empire at the end of the Thirty Years War, therefore they began building their Austrian Empire in east and southeast Europe.The Austrian monarch never became centalized or absolute because the state was composed of many national groups; each area had its own laws and political life; Nothing tied the regions together except their ideal of service to the Hapsburgs
11Russia Under Peter the Great A. 16th Century, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) was first Russian ruler to take the title of czar; he expanded territories andcrushed the boyarsWhen Ivan died, a period of anarchy known as the Time of Troubles followed; ended when the national assembly chose Michael Romanov as the new czar; the Romanovs rule Russia over 300 yearsPeter the Great: absolute monarch; claimed divine right; responsible for modernizing Russia; visited Europe brings technology back to Russia
12Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) PETER THE GREATRomanov
13D. Military Changes:- Peter reorganized army; drafted peasants for 25 years of European officersCultural Changes:- Peter prepared the first book of Russian etiquette; made nobles shave their beards unless they paya tax to keep it; forces Russians to start dressing like Westerners; held gatherings and force men and women to dance and talk.St. Petersburg:Peter needed a port with accesses to Europe; therefore he fights Sweden for territory on the Baltic Sea and win. Began construction of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea in Western style; hired European architects to design; remains the Russian capital until 1918.
15Section 4: The World of European Culture 11. Mannerism:- began in 1520s – 1530s, as the Renaissance came to an end- artistic movement that broke down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation- rules of proportion were ignored; elongated figures- El Greco: mood he depicts in his paintings reflects the religious upheavals of the Reformation
17The Baroque Period . - replaced mannerism - artistic style characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements; meant to arouse some emotion- Gian Lorenzo Bernini: architect and sculptor; completed Saint Peter’s Basilica; Throne of Saint Peter
20. A Golden Age of Literature: A. England’s Shakespeare:- William Shakespeare: playwright and actor in the theatre company, Lord Chamberlain’s Men; wrote 37 plays- coined more than 1700 words in the English languageB. Spanish Literature:- Lope de Vega: playwright; 1,500 plays- Miguel de Cervantes: wrote novel Don Quixote
25. Political ThoughtA. Thomas Hobbes:- wrote Leviathan- thought people were naturally greedy and selfish- only a powerfulgovernment can create apeaceful, orderlysociety
26John Locke:- wrote Two Treatises of Government- thought people were basically good, reasonable and moral- thought people had natural rights; government should protect natural rightsgovernment should be limited in power and accepted by all citizens if government does not protectnatural rights, then people have theright to overthrow it; a right to revolution