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CHAPTER 7 : Response to Crisis: Absolutism

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1 CHAPTER 7 : Response to Crisis: Absolutism
8. France Under Louis XIV: A. Louis XIV: best example of absolutism in the 17th century; all other European monarchs tried to imitate his court B. Richelieu and Mazarin: - Louis XIII and Louis XIV both come to the throne at young ages, therefore the monarch was kept in tact by their ministers, Richelieu and Mazarin. - Richelieu (Louis XIII minister): strengthened the power of the monarch, took Huguenots political and military rights because they were seen as a threat; had spies to uncover plots by nobles and then executed them - Mazarin (Louis XIV minister): crushed a revolt led by the nobility; result the people realized French stability lay in a strong monarch.


3 C. Louis XIV Comes to Power:
- Marzin dies; Louis XIV takes over supreme power; becomes known as the Sun King – the light of his people

4 - Palace Louis had built was at Versailles. It served 3
. Government and Religion: - Palace Louis had built was at Versailles. It served 3 purposes: 1. personal household to the king 2. chief offices of the state are located their and 3. subjects came to find favors for themselves - Louis removed his biggest threat, the nobles and royal princes, by keeping them out of politics and keeping them busy with court life: Louis did not share his authority with anyone - Louis was anti-Protestant; revokes the Edict of Nantes; he ordered all Huguenot churches to be destroyed and all their schools to be closed; Result: 200,000 Huguenots fled to England, the United Provinces, and the German states


6 E. The Economy and War: - Jean-Baptiste Colbert: Louis’ finance minister; followed ideas of mercantilism; granted subsidies to new industries; built roads and canals; raised tariffs on foreign goods – allowed Louis to build palace, to maintain his court, and to fight wars - War: Had a 400,000 man standing army; other European nations had to form coalitions to prevent him from dominating F. Legacy of Louis XIV: - left France with great debt and surrounded by enemies

7 Jean-Baptiste Colbert

8 Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
A. After the Thirty Years Wars, Prussia and Austria emerged as great European Powers Prussia: Fredrick William the Great Elector laid the foundation for Prussia. - Prussia was a small territory; no natural barriers for defense, therefore he built the fourth largest standing army in Europe. To maintain the army and his own power, Fredrick William set up the General War Commissariat; it levied taxes for the growth of the army and state Eventually Frederick William and his son are given the title of king.

9 Fredrick William the Great Elector of Prussia

10 Austria: The Hapsburgs had lost the Holy Roman Empire at the end of the Thirty Years War, therefore they began building their Austrian Empire in east and southeast Europe. The Austrian monarch never became centalized or absolute because the state was composed of many national groups; each area had its own laws and political life; Nothing tied the regions together except their ideal of service to the Hapsburgs

11 Russia Under Peter the Great
A. 16th Century, Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) was first Russian ruler to take the title of czar; he expanded territories and crushed the boyars When Ivan died, a period of anarchy known as the Time of Troubles followed; ended when the national assembly chose Michael Romanov as the new czar; the Romanovs rule Russia over 300 years Peter the Great: absolute monarch; claimed divine right; responsible for modernizing Russia; visited Europe brings technology back to Russia

12 Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)

13 D. Military Changes: - Peter reorganized army; drafted peasants for 25 years of European officers Cultural Changes: - Peter prepared the first book of Russian etiquette; made nobles shave their beards unless they pay a tax to keep it; forces Russians to start dressing like Westerners; held gatherings and force men and women to dance and talk. St. Petersburg: Peter needed a port with accesses to Europe; therefore he fights Sweden for territory on the Baltic Sea and win. Began construction of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea in Western style; hired European architects to design; remains the Russian capital until 1918.

14 Baltic Sea

15 Section 4: The World of European Culture
11. Mannerism: - began in 1520s – 1530s, as the Renaissance came to an end - artistic movement that broke down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation - rules of proportion were ignored; elongated figures - El Greco: mood he depicts in his paintings reflects the religious upheavals of the Reformation

16 El Greco

17 The Baroque Period . - replaced mannerism
- artistic style characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements; meant to arouse some emotion - Gian Lorenzo Bernini: architect and sculptor; completed Saint Peter’s Basilica; Throne of Saint Peter

18 Gian Lorenzo Bernini & Throne of Saint Peter

19 Baroque Art

20 . A Golden Age of Literature:
A. England’s Shakespeare: - William Shakespeare: playwright and actor in the theatre company, Lord Chamberlain’s Men; wrote 37 plays - coined more than 1700 words in the English language B. Spanish Literature: - Lope de Vega: playwright; 1,500 plays - Miguel de Cervantes: wrote novel Don Quixote

21 William Shakespeare

22 1700 words in the English language


24 Lope de Vega Miguel de Cervantes

25 . Political Thought A. Thomas Hobbes: - wrote Leviathan - thought people were naturally greedy and selfish - only a powerful government can create a peaceful, orderly society

26 John Locke: - wrote Two Treatises of Government - thought people were basically good, reasonable and moral - thought people had natural rights; government should protect natural rights government should be limited in power and accepted by all citizens if government does not protect natural rights, then people have the right to overthrow it; a right to revolution

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