Presentation on theme: "Homework Read pages 202-221 in the textbook. Based on this reading, complete the Mayans, Aztecs and Incans assignment available on the website. Due tomorrow."— Presentation transcript:
Homework Read pages 202-221 in the textbook. Based on this reading, complete the Mayans, Aztecs and Incans assignment available on the website. Due tomorrow. This will count as TWO homework grades.
Aim: Why was Louis XIV considered to be the model absolute ruler of Europe in the 17 th Century?
I.Louis XIV (The Sun King): Rules 1643- 1715 a. Practiced Absolutism: Having unlimited and unchallenged political authority in the hands of a single ruler. Justified by Divine Right.
A. How did previous rulers pave the way for Louis XIV -Louis XIII’s Advisor = Cardinal Richelieu (ruled 1624-1642) –Works to expand the power of the monarchy, crush the power of the nobility (spies to crush noble plots, destroys feudal castles of the nobles) –Changes the Edict of Nantes (no more fortified towns for Huguenots). –Supports the Protestants in the Thirty Years War What is the outcome for France?
B. How did Louis XIV express his power? -Building of Versailles: Lavish palace 12 miles from Paris 1. Symbol of French power and wealth 2. King’s residence and center of political affairs
C. How did he establish absolute rule over the nobility? -Invited nobles to court at Versailles → Keeps nobles busy, distracts them from politics and lets Louis keep an eye on them. -Chose middle class men as his advisors, not powerful nobles -Revokes the Edict of Nantes
D. What foreign policy did he pursue? -Expansionist: Louis wants to conquer land, wages 4 major European wars -How is Louis going to get the money to pay for this and still keep Versailles going?
E. What kind of economic policy did Louis XIV uphold → Mercantilism -Turns to Mercantilism: Economic theory stating that a country’s power and wealth are based on how much gold and silver it has. -To keep gold and silver in the country, you create a favorable balance of trade – export (sell) more goods to other countries than you import (buy) from them. -Tariffs (taxes on foreign goods) should be created to keep imports out. -Colonies should be established to provide raw materials and serve as markets for French goods -Government runs the economy and enforces all of this!
Who oversaw his mercantilist policies = Jean- Baptiste Colbert
F. By the time Louis XIV passed away in 1715, what kind of state was France in? - France was in debt from Louis’ wars and lavish spending. Peasants are forced to pay high taxes → growing anger
II. Other Absolute Rulers A.Russia → Peter the Great (Tsar from 1682-1725) 1.His primary goal is to Westernize Russia - Russia was isolated from Europe and technologically behind. Society was dominated by landed aristocrats who had turned most of the peasants into serfs.
2. How did he carry out his goals? -Traveled to the West in disguise to learn about Western technologies and gain new ideas -Introduced western customs and dress (shorter beards and coats) -Reorganized the army and built up the first Russian navy -Built the great port / capital city of St. Petersburg→ “Window to the West”