Essential Questions Why were the silk roads important in world history?Why were the silk roads important in world history? How did the silk roads facilitate religious diffusion?How did the silk roads facilitate religious diffusion? What role did the silk roads play in biological diffusion?What role did the silk roads play in biological diffusion? How did the control of trade contribute to the rise in political power in the region?How did the control of trade contribute to the rise in political power in the region?
A Chronology In Asia c. 3 rd BCESpread Buddhism SE Asiac. 3 rd BCESpread Buddhism SE Asia c. 2 nd BCESpread Buddhism C. Asiac. 2 nd BCESpread Buddhism C. Asia 139-126Travels of Zhang Qian139-126Travels of Zhang Qian BCE BCE c. 1 st CESpread Buddhism Chinac. 1 st CESpread Buddhism China
A Chronology in Europe c. 2 nd CEChristianity into Mediterraneanc. 2 nd CEChristianity into Mediterranean 284-305 CEReign of Diocletian284-305 CEReign of Diocletian 313-337 CEReign of Constantine313-337 CEReign of Constantine 476 CECollapse of Roman Empire in the West476 CECollapse of Roman Empire in the West
Religious Chronology 216-272 Life of Mani216-272 Life of Mani CE CE 313 CEEdict of Milan [Legalized Christianity]313 CEEdict of Milan [Legalized Christianity] 325 CECouncil of Nicaea325 CECouncil of Nicaea 451 CECouncil of Chalcedon [Both councils dealt with ‘heresies’ about the nature of Christ]451 CECouncil of Chalcedon [Both councils dealt with ‘heresies’ about the nature of Christ]
Important Concepts Silk RoadsSilk Roads –Trade routes spanning Eurasia & N. Africa Land & sea routes inclusiveLand & sea routes inclusive Named b/c high-quality silkNamed b/c high-quality silk –principal commodity Monsoon system [Mausan- Arabic]Monsoon system [Mausan- Arabic] –Trade network in Indian Ocean Sea routes b/w India & Arabia, AfricaSea routes b/w India & Arabia, Africa –Sailors used monsoon winds
Concepts Germanic PeoplesGermanic Peoples –Nomadic peoples of northern Europe –Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxons & Lombards Migrated to borders of Roman Empire> 2 nd C. CEMigrated to borders of Roman Empire> 2 nd C. CE Invaded Rome & deposed Emperor> 476 CEInvaded Rome & deposed Emperor> 476 CE –Settled: Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, N. AfricaItaly, Gaul, Spain, Britain, N. Africa
Religious Concepts ManichaeismManichaeism –Sought to syncretize Buddhism, Zoroastrianism & Christianity The NestoriansThe Nestorians –Christian sect> founded by Nestorius [Greek Theologian] –Emphasized the human, not divine, nature of Christ DiocesesDioceses –Christian districts in all major cities, [presided] bishops PopePope –From Latin “papa” [father] –Bishop of Rome –Spiritual leader of Christian communities after fall of western Roman Empire
Significant People AttilaAttila Warrior King of Huns [Central Asia]Warrior King of Huns [Central Asia] Attacked Germanic people> Borders Roman EmpireAttacked Germanic people> Borders Roman Empire AlaricAlaric Leader VisigothsLeader Visigoths sacked Rome 410 CEsacked Rome 410 CE ConstantineConstantine Roman Emperor [Constantinople]Roman Emperor [Constantinople] First Christian emperorFirst Christian emperor –Edict of Milan > legitimatised Christianity in Roman Empire
Significant People St. Augustine Well educated philosopher – –Harmonized Christianity with Platonic philosophy Facilitated acceptance of Christianity by intellectuals Zhang Qian Han emissary who returned after 12 years – –Facilitated opening of silk roads for trade
Cultural Exchanges Buddhism – –Spread from India: [Missionary Outreach] By merchants To steppe lands & China along silk roads [1 st C. BCE] – –S.E. Asia by 5 th C. CE Hinduism – –Spread from India: By merchants to S.E. Asia – –Many were advisors to rulers Rulers [“rajas “ or kings] Sanskrit> written language
Cultural Exchanges Christianity – –Spread in Mediterranean Basin & Mesopotamia Missionary outreach: – –Paul of Tarsus & Gregory Converts in S.W. Asia & Iran until 6 th C. CE Nestorians: – –S.W. Asia – –Emphasized human rather than divine nature of Christ – –Central Asia, India, China [7 th C. CE] – –Many Christians in China today are Nestorians
Cultural Exchanges Manichaeism – –Zoroastrian Mani> founder – –Sought to syncretize Zoroastrianism, Christianity & Buddhism Persecuted by: – –Romans and Sasanids Still survives in Central Asia
Biological Exchanges Epidemic diseases Traveled with trader & trade goods along silk roads – –Common epidemic diseases: Small pox, measles, bubonic plague Impact: – –Population: Roman Empire> dropped by ¼ from 1 st to 10 th Centuries CE Han China> dropped by ¼ 1 st to 7 th Centuries CE – –Economic: Economies contracted weakening both empires Small regional economies emerged
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