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Chapter 12 Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements Changed in classical period  Improvement of infrastructure  Development of empires ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Introduction

3 Trade Networks Develop Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes Connect previously established routes i.e. China, India, Persian “royal road”, Roman etc… plus Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Mediterranean 3 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4 Trade in the Hellenistic World Bactria/India  Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls Persia, Egypt  Grain Mediterranean  Wine, oil, jewelry, art Development of professional merchant class 4 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5 The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Roman empire Sea lanes and maritime trade as well 5 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. John Greene – Silk Road

6 The Silk Roads, 200 B.C.E.-300 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6

7 Wide variety of high value products ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7

8 Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments  Trade done in stages  Lighter, smaller, high value items generally traded on land routes Sea trade  Malay and Indian mariners  Persian, Egyptian, Greek  Bulkier cargo ie cotton, sugar, ceramics ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8

9 Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 B.C.E C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9

10 The Spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity, 200 B.C.E.-400 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10

11 Buddhism in China Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations Gradual spread to larger population, beginning fifth century C.E. Appealed to Chinese Daoists, traders seeking refuge in monasteries, Chinese dissatisfied with gov’t Buddhism was substituted for the Daoists “way” the new “way” becomes the Eightfold Path, daoist temples become buddhist (syncretism) 11 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

12 Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia Sea lanes in Indian Ocean First century C.E., clear Indian influence in southeast Asia (syncretism)  Rulers called “rajas”  Sanskrit used for written communication  Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12

13 Christianity in Mediterranean Basin Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia, third century C.E. Christianity spreads through middle east, north Africa, Europe Sizeable communities as far east as India Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13

14 Christianity in Southwest Asia Influence of ascetic practices from India Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies After fifth century C.E., followed Nestorius  Emphasized human nature of Jesus 14 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

15 Spread of Manichaeism Mani a devout Zoroastrian ( C.E.) Viewed himself a prophet for all humanity Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism Dualist (syncretism)  Good vs. evil  Light vs. dark  Spirit vs. matter 15 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

16 Manichaean Society Devout: “the elect”  Ascetic lifestyle  Celibacy, vegetarianism  Life of prayer and fasting Laity: “hearers”  Material supporters of “the elect” 16 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

17 Decline of Manichaeism Spread through silk routes to major cities in Roman empire Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sasanid persecution  Mani arrested, dies in captivity Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute 17 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

18 Christianity spread in Rome Word of miracles Dissatisfaction with Roman decay leads people to seek new truths/options Promise of better life (salvation) Use of Roman symbols ie – church vestments similar to Roman authorities, church holidays coincide with Roman pagan feast days, church language becomes Latin (syncretism) ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18

19 Buddhism: India To China and S.E.A

20 The European Jesus Hollywood Jesus American Jesus African Jesus

21 This is what modern day anthropologists think Jesus looked like. How do images show evidence of syncretism? Do they affect the “appeal” of religion? How do images show evidence of syncretism? Do they affect the “appeal” of religion?

22 The Spread of Epidemic Disease Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency 22 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23 Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires 23 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

24 Internal Decay of the Han State Court intrigue Problem of land distribution  Large landholders develop private armies Epidemics Peasant rebellions  184 C.E., Yellow Turban uprising 24 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

25 Collapse of the Han Dynasty Generals assume authority, reduce emperor to puppet figure Alliance with landowners 200 C.E., Han dynasty abolished, replaced by three kingdoms Immigration of northern nomads increases ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25

26 Nomadic Invasions of Han China ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26 China’s greatest threats came from the Xiongnu nomadic empire. They are also known as the Eastern Huns.

27 Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples Sinicization = Social and cultural changes to a Chinese way of life Adapted to the Chinese environment  Agriculture Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage 27 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

28 Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28

29 Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors The “barracks emperors” C.E., twenty-six claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles Epidemics Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29

30 Diocletian (r C.E.) Divided empire into two administrative districts Co-emperors, dual lieutenants  “Tetrarchs” Currency, budget reform Relative stability disappears after Diocletian's death, civil war follows Constantine emerges victorious 30 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

31 Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity  Formerly buffer states for Roman empire Attacked by Huns under Attila in fifth century C.E. Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman empire Sacked Rome in 410 C.E., established Germanic emperor in 476 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31

32 Germanic Invasions and the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32

33 Cultural Change in the Roman Empire Growth of Christianity  Constantine’s vision, 312 C.E.  Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice  Converts to Christianity 380 C.E., Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman empire ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33

34 St. Augustine ( C.E.) Hippo, north Africa Experimented with Greek thought, Manichaeism 387 C.E., converts to Christianity Major theologian 34 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

35 The Institutional Church Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early Church  Divinity of Jesus  Role of women Church hierarchy established  Patriarchs, bishop of Rome 35 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The following video is edgy and controversial. It is intended to be a demonstration of syncretic forces at work in all religions not as an attack on religion.


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