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Ch. 12 Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

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1 Ch. 12 Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

2 Silk Roads Started by large Empires (ex. Roman, Han, Kushan) EAST WEST
Asia, India, China Mediterranean area & Roman Empire Exported spices, fruits silks EXPORTED: glassware Jewels, art, decorative items

3 Religions on the Silk Roads
Provided rational Explanation of Good vs. evil High ethical standards Manichaeism Merchants, missionaries, & others took advantage of the roads to spread their beliefs Started by Mani Dualism Christianity Buddhism Light Hinduism Dark Mediterranean Basin Merchants SW Asia Iran, C & SE Asia, & China Merchants & Mariners SE Asia (Vietnam & Cambodia) Spiritual Material World Very Devout, Strict Missionaries Effected culture (ex. Rajas) Paul of Tarsus Gregory The Wonderworker

4 Small pox, measles, bubonic plague
Epidemic Disease Small pox, measles, bubonic plague Roman Empire Han Dynasty Population decline In 400ce Population decline in 2nd Century C.E. Economic And Social Change Trade declined & Became regional

5 China after Han Cultural Change Epidemic Disease Political Problems
Confucian Tradition Lost credibility Lost ability To maintain order Factions within ranks (marriage alliances) Nomads migrated Into China Population declined Land holdings Took up Agriculture & settled Took Chinese names Married Chinese spouses Central gov’t dissolves Left Confucianism toward Buddhism & Daoism Generals ruled regions Attracted by migrants already familiar w/it from India Becomes more religious than philosophical

6 The Fall of the Roman Empire
Rome didn’t Entirely fall Byzantine on the East External Threats Intermittent Hostilities w/Sasanids Barracks Emperors Internal Decay Visigoths (Scandi- navia & Ru- ssia) Huns 26 Generals Diocletian Possble Cousins Of Xiognu Constantine Died Violently Divide Rome East & West Son of Co-ruler Attila Warrior king Adopted many Roman cultures Threatened others Anatolia, Syria Egypt & Greece Gaul, Spain Britain N. Africa New capital Constantinople Agriculture army laws Christianity Forced to Move into Roman Boundaries Reunited Eastern & Western Rome Four Official Tetrarchs Still faced external threats Moved around at will Stabilize Economy

7 Cultural Change in Roman Empire
Institutional Church Christianity Hierarchy Prominent survivor of Rome Constantine Theodosius St. Augustine New Testament Official Religion Had more power Pope & Patriarchs Converted To Christianity Bishop of Hippo in Africa Under Roman turmoil officials wanted to standardize teachings Bishops Became legitimate religion Edict of Milan Took care of diocese Claim to be the descendant of St. Peter Converted to Christianity Disputes Arise, de- cide official doctrine Made Christianity intellectually respectable against other philosophies & religions Allowed Christianity in Rome openly After several debates Became spiritual leader of Christian community Council of Nicea and Chalcedon 4th c.-27 short writings were recognized as authoritative Helped change a religion to a church Discuss Jesus’ nature Both human & divine New Testament Christianity survives Imperial authority & will serve a cultural Unification from many lands

8 Inquiry Questions (4-5 sentence response per question)
In what ways did the network of trade routes called the silk roads make life during the classical era significantly different from life in the pre-classical era? The textbook states “Christianity was perhaps the most prominent survivor of the Western Roman Empire.” What does this statement mean? How did Christianity manage to survive and thrive after the collapse of the empire? How did the nomadic peoples of Eurasia (Visigoths, Huns) impeded and/or contribute to the development of the silk roads?

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