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Ch. 12 Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads.

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1 Ch. 12 Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

2 Silk Roads Started by large Empires (ex. Roman, Han, Kushan) WEST Mediterranean area & Roman Empire EXPORTED: glassware Jewels, art, decorative items EAST Asia, India, China Exported spices, fruits silks

3 Religions on the Silk Roads Merchants, missionaries, & others took advantage of the roads to spread their beliefs Merchants, missionaries, & others took advantage of the roads to spread their beliefs Christianity Mediterranean Basin Missionaries Paul of Tarsus Gregory The Wonderworker Buddhism Merchants Iran, C & SE Asia, & China Hinduism SW Asia Very Devout, Strict Merchants & Mariners SE Asia (Vietnam & Cambodia) Effected culture (ex. Rajas) Manichaeism Started by Mani Dualism Light Dark Spiritual Material World Provided rational Explanation of Good vs. evil High ethical standards

4 Epidemic Disease Small pox, measles, bubonic plague Han Dynasty Roman Empire Population decline In 400ce Population decline in 2 nd Century C.E. Economic And Social Change Trade declined & Became regional

5 China after Han Cultural ChangeEpidemic DiseasePolitical Problems Confucian Tradition Lost credibility Nomads migrated Into China Took Chinese names Married Chinese spouses Took up Agriculture & settled Left Confucianism toward Buddhism & Daoism Attracted by migrants already familiar w/it from India Becomes more religious than philosophical Population declined Lost ability To maintain order Factions within ranks (marriage alliances) Land holdings Central gov’t dissolves Generals ruled regions

6 The Fall of the Roman Empire Internal Decay Barracks Emperors 26 Generals Died Violently Diocletian Divide Rome East & West Anatolia, Syria Egypt & Greece Gaul, Spain Britain N. Africa Four Official Tetrarchs Stabilize Economy Constantine Son of Co-ruler New capital Constantinople Reunited Eastern & Western Rome Still faced external threats External Threats Intermittent Hostilities w/Sasanids Visigoths (Scandi- navia & Ru- ssia) Adopted many Roman cultures armylawsChristianity Agriculture Huns Attila Warrior king Possble Cousins Of Xiognu Threatened others Forced to Move into Roman Boundaries Moved around at will Rome didn’t Entirely fall Byzantine on the East

7 Cultural Change in Roman Empire Christianity Prominent survivor of Rome Became legitimate religion Constantine Converted To Christianity Edict of Milan Allowed Christianity in Rome openly Theodosius Official Religion St. Augustine Bishop of Hippo in Africa Converted to Christianity Made Christianity intellectually respectable against other philosophies & religions Helped change a religion to a church New Testament Under Roman turmoil officials wanted to standardize teachings After several debates 4 th c.-27 short writings were recognized as authoritative New Testament Institutional Church Hierarchy Pope & Patriarchs Bishops Had more power Claim to be the descendant of St. Peter Became spiritual leader of Christian community T ook care of diocese Disputes Arise, de- cide official doctrine Council of Nicea and Chalcedon Discuss Jesus’ nature Both human & divine Christianity survives Imperial authority & will serve a cultural Unification from many lands

8 Inquiry Questions (4-5 sentence response per question) 0 In what ways did the network of trade routes called the silk roads make life during the classical era significantly different from life in the pre-classical era? 0 The textbook states “Christianity was perhaps the most prominent survivor of the Western Roman Empire.” What does this statement mean? How did Christianity manage to survive and thrive after the collapse of the empire? 0 How did the nomadic peoples of Eurasia (Visigoths, Huns) impeded and/or contribute to the development of the silk roads?

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