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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chapter 12 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chapter 12 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chapter 12 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements Changed in classical period  Improvement of infrastructure  Development of empires

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Trade Networks Develop Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of Monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Trade in the Hellenistic World Bactria/India  Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls Persia, Egypt  Grain Mediterranean  Wine, oil, jewelry, art Development of professional merchant class

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire Sea Lanes and Maritime trade as well

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Silk Roads, 200 BCE-300 CE

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Buddhism in China Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5 th c. CE

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia Sea lanes in Indian Ocean 1 st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia  Rulers called “rajas”  Sanskrit used for written communication  Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Christianity in Mediterranean Basin Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3 rd c. CE Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, Europe Sizeable communities as far east as India Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Christianity in SW Asia Influence of ascetic practices from India Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies After 5 th c. CE, followed Nestorios  Emphasized human nature of Jesus

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Spread of Manichaeism Mani Zoroastrian prophet ( CE) Influenced by Christianity, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism Dualist  good vs. evil  light vs. dark  spirit vs. matter

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Manichaean Society Devout: “the Elect”  Ascetic lifestyle  Celibacy, vegetarianism  Life of prayer and fasting Laity: “the Hearers”  Material supporters of “the Elect”

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Decline of Manichaeism Spread through silk routes to major cities in Roman Empire Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sassanid persecution  Mani arrested, dies in captivity Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Spread of Epidemic Disease Belief systems and scapegoats  Romans believe Christians are to blame  St. Cyprian – On Morality Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self- sufficiency

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Internal Decay of the Han State Court intrigue Formation of actions Problem of land distribution  Large landholders develop private armies Epidemics Peasant rebellions  184 CE Yellow Turban Rebellion

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Collapse of the Han Dynasty Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure Alliance with landowners 200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms Immigration of northern nomads increases

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples Sinicization: to make Chinese in character or bring under Chinese influence Nomads adapt to Chinese environment Adoption of sedentary lifestyle  Agriculture Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors The Barracks Emperors claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles Epidemics Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Diocletian (r CE) Divided empire into two administrative districts Co-Emperors, dual Lieutenants  “Tetrarchs” Currency, budget reform Relative stability disappears after Diocletian’s retirement from office (305 CE) civil war follows (306 CE) Constantine emerges victorious

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity  Formerly buffer states for Roman Empire Attacked by Huns under Attila in 5 th c. CE Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman Empire Sacked Rome in 410 CE, established Germanic emperor in 476 CE  Germanic general Odovacer deposed Romulus Augustulus

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Germanic invasions and the fall of the western Roman empire, C.E.

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Cultural Change in the Roman Empire Growth of Christianity  Constantine’s Vision, 312 CE  Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice  Converts to Christianity 380 CE Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman Empire

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. St. Augustine ( CE) Hippo, North Africa Experimented with Greek thought, Manichaeism 387 converts to Christianity Major theologian

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Institutional Church Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early Church  Divinity of Jesus  Role of women Church hierarchy established  Bishop of Rome  Five Patriarchs of Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria and Constantinople

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Collapse of Rome and the Church Church Council’s Council of Nicaea (325 CE) and Council of Chalcedon (451 CE  Determine the nature of Jesus Pope as spiritual leader


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