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Chapter 12 Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements Changed in classical period  Improvement of infrastructure  Development of empires ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

3 Trade Networks Develop Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes 3 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4 Trade in the Hellenistic World Bactria/India  Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls Persia, Egypt  Grain Mediterranean  Wine, oil, jewelry, art Development of professional merchant class 4 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5 The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Roman empire Sea lanes and maritime trade as well 5 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6 C 12: Cross Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads Hellenistic era as stage for Silk Road Boom? Why safe to travel now during the Classic Era? The Silk Road: 200 BCE – 300 CE

7 Products?

8 The Silk Roads, 200 B.C.E.-300 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8

9 From East Asia: Ginger, cinnamon, silk From South Asia: Pepper, sesame oil From South East Asia: Clove, nutmeg, mace From the Mediterranean: Glassware, jewelry, Textiles, pottery From Central Asia: Horses, jade

10 Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments  Trade done in stages Sea trade  Malay and Indian mariners  Persian, Egyptian, Greek ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10

11 Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 B.C.E C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11

12 The Spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity, 200 B.C.E.-400 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12

13 Buddhism in China Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations Gradual spread to larger population, beginning fifth century C.E. 13 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

14 Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity: 200 BCE -400 CE

15 Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia Sea lanes in Indian Ocean First century C.E., clear Indian influence in southeast Asia  Rulers called “rajas”  Sanskrit used for written communication  Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

16 Christianity in Mediterranean Basin Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia, third century C.E. Christianity spreads through middle east, north Africa, Europe Sizeable communities as far east as India Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16

17 Christianity in Southwest Asia Influence of ascetic practices from India Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies After fifth century C.E., followed Nestorius  Emphasized human nature of Jesus 17 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

18 Effects of this Boom in Trade:  Economic activities become more sophisticated and productive  cultural exchange (art, language, religion)/ role of oasis towns  spread of Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity  Manichaeism (Best example of religious syncretism along Silk Road)  spread of disease weakened Han and Roman empires in particular  reduction in trade with collapse Manichaeism Priests (3 rd – 7 th CE) Manichaeism Elements of: Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra), Christianity (Jesus) and Buddhism (Buddha) Prophet Mani ( CE): a prophet for all of humanity Dualism and cosmic struggle (strong rationale for presence of good and evil) Personal salvation Strong missionary component Ascetic lifestyle (no marriage, no sex, no alcohol) High ethical standards

19 Spread of Manichaeism Mani a devout Zoroastrian ( C.E.) Viewed himself a prophet for all humanity Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism Dualist  Good vs. evil  Light vs. dark  Spirit vs. matter 19 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

20 Manichaean Society Devout: “the elect”  Ascetic lifestyle  Celibacy, vegetarianism  Life of prayer and fasting Laity: “hearers”  Material supporters of “the elect” 20 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

21 Decline of Manichaeism Spread through silk routes to major cities in Roman empire Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sasanid persecution  Mani arrested, dies in captivity Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute 21 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

22 The Spread of Epidemic Disease Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency 22 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23 Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires 23 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

24 Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires Conrad- Demarest?

25 Internal Decay of the Han State Court intrigue Problem of land distribution  Large landholders develop private armies Epidemics Peasant rebellions  184 C.E., Yellow Turban uprising 25 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26 Internal Decay:  Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure  Marriage alliances led to conflict  Continued problem of land distribution  disease  Yellow Turban Uprising 184CE  200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms External Pressures:  Immigration of northern nomads increases Collapse of the Han Dynasty: Internal Decay and External Pressures Spread of Epidemic Disease Sets the Stage……

27 Collapse of the Han Dynasty Generals assume authority, reduce emperor to puppet figure Alliance with landowners 200 C.E., Han dynasty abolished, replaced by three kingdoms Immigration of northern nomads increases ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27

28  sinicization of nomadic peoples (adoption of sedentary lifestyle, adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage  rise in Buddhism and Daoism (Confucianism loses credibility: WHY?)  disintegration into regional states Collapse of the Han Dynasty: Internal Decay and External Pressures Effects?

29 Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples Social and cultural changes to a Chinese way of life Adapted to the Chinese environment  Agriculture Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage 29 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

30 Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30

31 Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors The “barracks emperors” C.E., twenty-six claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles Epidemics Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31

32 Diocletian (r C.E.) Divided empire into two administrative districts Co-emperors, dual lieutenants  “Tetrarchs” Currency, budget reform Relative stability disappears after Diocletian's death, civil war follows Constantine emerges victorious 32 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

33 Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity  Formerly buffer states for Roman empire Attacked by Huns under Attila in fifth century C.E. Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman empire Sacked Rome in 410 C.E., established Germanic emperor in 476 C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33

34 Collapse of the Roman Empire: Internal Decay and External Pressures Internal Decay: Tetrarchs? Role of Constantine? Diocletian r CE Constantine r CE  Barracks Emperors  Epidemics  Disintegration of Imperial Economy  Regional Self Sufficiency favored

35 Germanic Invasions and the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35

36 Cultural Change in the Roman Empire Growth of Christianity  Constantine’s vision, 312 C.E.  Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice  Converts to Christianity 380 C.E., Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman empire ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36

37 St. Augustine ( C.E.) Hippo, north Africa Experimented with Greek thought, Manichaeism 387 C.E., converts to Christianity Major theologian 37 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

38 The Institutional Church Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early Church  Divinity of Jesus  Role of women Church hierarchy established  Patriarchs, bishop of Rome 38 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


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