Presentation on theme: "Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 BCE – 600 CE"— Presentation transcript:
1 Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 BCE – 600 CE
2 I. The Silk Road Origins and Operations Parthians (247 BCE) General Zhang Jian (128 BCE)New citiesGoods exchanged from East – WestB. The Sasanid Empire, 224 – 600 CEArtifacts, sedentary warrior elitePurpose of citiesNew crops in MediterraneanState religion – Zoroastrianism (intolerance)
3 B. The Sasanid Empire Continued 431 CE – Nestorian Christians declared heretics by Byzantine EmpireThird c. – rise of ManichaeismCompetition for converts along Silk RoadC. The Impact of the Silk RoadGrowing importance of tradeNomads – dwellingsCompeting religionsMilitary technologyImpact of stirrup
4 What is the connection between Manichaeism and Nestorian Christians to the Silk Road? Why do you think these religions were considered a threat?
5 II. The Indian Ocean Maritime System South China SeaEast coast of India to islands of Southeast AsiaWest coast of India to Persian Gulf and East coast of AfricaDominant traders in each region – exceptionsMediterraneanIndian OceanSquare sails, oars, nailsClose to shore, many islands, small harborsContact with homelandTriangular sails, lack of oars, sewn togetherLong distance – Monsoon windsNo contact with homeland
6 Origins of Contact and Trade Early/late recordsIndonesian migration to MadagascarImpact on African mainland – canoes and agricultureB. Impact of Indian Ocean TradeGoods from Africa and Middle EastVolume of tradeWestern Indian Ocean ports – isolated, not primarily focused on tradeEastern Indian Ocean ports – larger inland populations, trade VERY importantRole of women
7 Why were ports that were part of the West Indian Ocean trade routes less integrated in the surrounding landscape than East Indian Ocean ports?
8 III. Routes Across the Sahara Trans – Saharan caravan routesCave paintingsCattle, horses, chariotsCAMELSNorth – SouthSalt – forest productsImpact of Rome
9 Compare the impact of technology on Saharan trade routes to the Indian Ocean Maritime trade.
10 IV. Sub – Saharan Africa A. Geography, geography, geography… 4,000 miles from Sahara to Cape of Good HopePalindrome effectTropical rainforest, deserts, savannah, Mediterranean climateRivers, rift valleys, cataracts
11 Culture, Technology, and Migrations Great traditions vs. small traditionsGeographic isolationLanguage, agricultureMusic, kinship, danceMigration after Ice AgeBananasHow did iron smelting reach sub – Saharan Africa?Bantu Migration – origins, language
12 What impact did the physical geography of Africa have on the cultural development of people living in sub – Saharan Africa?
13 V. The Spread of Ideas Ideas and Material Evidence Pig domestication – origins – prohibitionCoins – Anatolia – spread to Europe, North Africa, and India…China?B. The Spread of BuddhismNot tied to a single ethnic/kinship groupImpact of kings and Silk Road travelersFaxian (Early 5th c.) – Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Java, ChinaAshoka’s missionariesDifferent lands – Mahayana or Theravada Buddhism
14 C. The Spread of Christianity Spread in Asia and Africa – Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria…Armenia and EthiopiaArmenia – strategic Silk Road locationZoroastrianismAlphabetConstantinople – missionaries to Yemen and Ethiopia4th c. CE – Aedisius and Frumentius in EthiopiaNubia
15 Why is it more difficult to trace the spread of Buddhism or Christianity than the spread of coin technology?What factors enabled the spread of Buddhism and Christianity in Asia and Africa?