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Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 BCE – 600 CE

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Presentation on theme: "Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 BCE – 600 CE"— Presentation transcript:

1 Networks of Communication and Exchange, 300 BCE – 600 CE

2 I. The Silk Road Origins and Operations Parthians (247 BCE)
General Zhang Jian (128 BCE) New cities Goods exchanged from East – West B. The Sasanid Empire, 224 – 600 CE Artifacts, sedentary warrior elite Purpose of cities New crops in Mediterranean State religion – Zoroastrianism (intolerance)

3 B. The Sasanid Empire Continued
431 CE – Nestorian Christians declared heretics by Byzantine Empire Third c. – rise of Manichaeism Competition for converts along Silk Road C. The Impact of the Silk Road Growing importance of trade Nomads – dwellings Competing religions Military technology Impact of stirrup

4 What is the connection between Manichaeism and Nestorian Christians to the Silk Road? Why do you think these religions were considered a threat?

5 II. The Indian Ocean Maritime System
South China Sea East coast of India to islands of Southeast Asia West coast of India to Persian Gulf and East coast of Africa Dominant traders in each region – exceptions Mediterranean Indian Ocean Square sails, oars, nails Close to shore, many islands, small harbors Contact with homeland Triangular sails, lack of oars, sewn together Long distance – Monsoon winds No contact with homeland

6 Origins of Contact and Trade
Early/late records Indonesian migration to Madagascar Impact on African mainland – canoes and agriculture B. Impact of Indian Ocean Trade Goods from Africa and Middle East Volume of trade Western Indian Ocean ports – isolated, not primarily focused on trade Eastern Indian Ocean ports – larger inland populations, trade VERY important Role of women

7 Why were ports that were part of the West Indian Ocean trade routes less integrated in the surrounding landscape than East Indian Ocean ports?

8 III. Routes Across the Sahara
Trans – Saharan caravan routes Cave paintings Cattle, horses, chariots CAMELS North – South Salt – forest products Impact of Rome

9 Compare the impact of technology on Saharan trade routes to the Indian Ocean Maritime trade.

10 IV. Sub – Saharan Africa A. Geography, geography, geography…
4,000 miles from Sahara to Cape of Good Hope Palindrome effect Tropical rainforest, deserts, savannah, Mediterranean climate Rivers, rift valleys, cataracts

11 Culture, Technology, and Migrations
Great traditions vs. small traditions Geographic isolation Language, agriculture Music, kinship, dance Migration after Ice Age Bananas How did iron smelting reach sub – Saharan Africa? Bantu Migration – origins, language

12 What impact did the physical geography of Africa have on the cultural development of people living in sub – Saharan Africa?

13 V. The Spread of Ideas Ideas and Material Evidence
Pig domestication – origins – prohibition Coins – Anatolia – spread to Europe, North Africa, and India…China? B. The Spread of Buddhism Not tied to a single ethnic/kinship group Impact of kings and Silk Road travelers Faxian (Early 5th c.) – Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Java, China Ashoka’s missionaries Different lands – Mahayana or Theravada Buddhism

14 C. The Spread of Christianity
Spread in Asia and Africa – Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria…Armenia and Ethiopia Armenia – strategic Silk Road location Zoroastrianism Alphabet Constantinople – missionaries to Yemen and Ethiopia 4th c. CE – Aedisius and Frumentius in Ethiopia Nubia

15 Why is it more difficult to trace the spread of Buddhism or Christianity than the spread of coin technology? What factors enabled the spread of Buddhism and Christianity in Asia and Africa?

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