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Presentation on theme: "EXCHANGES, CHANGES AND COLLAPSES:"— Presentation transcript:



3 WARFARE Civil Wars in Rome Nomadic Invasions
Rival generals seeking to gain emperorship Conflicts between Arabs under Zenobia, Monophysites in Egypt with Romans Nomadic Invasions Huns in Mediterranean, Persia, India Kushans in India Central Asians in China Agriculturalist Migration leads to war Germans migrated into empire to avoid Huns Romans too weak to resist German take over Great Power Wars Rome (Eastern Roman Empire) and Sassanids War lasted on and off two hundred years War exhausted both empires Eastern Roman Empire bribed Germans, Huns to go west Civil Wars in China and India Rival dynasties struggle to reestablish control in China, India Often exacerbated by nomadic invasions Results Depopulation of many areas; Destruction of agriculture Loss of trade as warfare, piracy stop flow Spread of diseases


5 OCEAN TRADE NETWORKS Regulated not controlled at various stages by locally dominant states Most merchants accepted an unwritten code of conduct Trade was largely peaceful and protected by dominant powers Powers cooperated to protect against pirates The Indian Ocean to China Trade Network Based on the monsoon patterns NE Winds blow ships towards India, SE Asia SW Winds blow ships towards Arabia, Africa Intricate System of stopovers, entrepots required Indian Ocean divided into three zones Western zone dominated by Arabs, Persians, Ethiopians Middle Zone between India and SE Asia dominated by Indians Eastern Zone from SE Asia to China dominated by Chinese Major ports called entrepots at exchange points along divisions Goods exchanged tended to be luxuries with exception of rice, wood Trade in the Hellenistic Mediterranean Dominated by Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Jews, later Arabs Besides various commodities, also slave trade Links to Indian Ocean network through Egypt, Ethiopia

6 LAND TRADE ROUTES Most famous called Silk Road Trade goods
Overland trade routes linked China to Mediterranean basin Sea-lanes joined Asia and Mediterranean basin into one network Trade goods Silk and spices traveled west Central Asia produced large horses and jade, sold in China Mediterranean provided glassware, jewelry, art works, perfumes, textiles The organization of long-distance trade Merchants of different regions handled trade in stages Similar to Indian Ocean to China trade network Merchants tended to be Armenians, Nestorians, some Jews Controlled, protected most of length by Central Asian nomads Many smaller routes connect to Silk Road Arabs controlled desert routes into Arabia between Egypt, Persia Arameans, Nestorians control much of SW Asia Bactrians, Sogdians, Kushans control routes into India Romans lost gold, silver as their people desired luxuries

Buddhism in Central Asia First present in oasis towns of central Asia along silk roads Further spread to steppelands Spread by merchants traveling from India to China Hellenized Bactrians, Kushans heavily influenced by Buddhism Buddhism in China Foreign merchants as Buddhists in China, 1st century B.C.E. Popularity of monasteries and missionaries, 5th century C.E. Many early conversions during time of troubles in China Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia Spread by Hindu merchants; later Buddhist missionaries Conversion of local ruling elites so they could control lucrative trade Rulers referred to themselves as rajas ("kings") Adopted Sanskrit as written language Many rulers converted to Buddhism, others promoted Hindu cults Buddhist or Hindu advisors in government Rise of new civilizations due to influence: Khmer, Srivijava, Mahajavit Many of first Christian “heresies” were Buddhist influenced




Christianity in the Mediterranean basin Built upon existing Jewish, Phoenician, Greek trading areas First converts poor, women, merchants attracted by Christian message First converts often at lowest end of social pyramid Leading Christian cities (Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch, Constantinople, Rome) Christian communities flourished especially in areas connected to trade Paul of Tarsus visited mostly trading areas; was followed by many others Ephesians, Corinthians, Thessalonians were all trading areas Apostles, missionaries used protected trade routes to move about Mark converted Egypt by tradition Christianity in Southwest Asia Sizable communities in Mesopotamia and Iran by 2nd century C.E. Sizable number of converts in southwest Asia until the 7th century C.E. Their ascetic practices influenced Christian practices in the Roman empire St. Thomas by tradition carried Christianity to trading cities of S. India Monophysites – Another Interpretation of Christianity A Christian sect developed in southwest Asia Nestorians emphasized human nature of Jesus, 5th century C.E. Copts of Egypt and Ethiopia emphasize his divinity Armenians, Georgians, Egyptians, Ethiopians 1st nations to convert Condemned by General Church councils as a heresy Strong influence in Arabia, possibly influencing Muhammad Communities in central Asia, India, and China, 7th century C.E. Tended to be trusted because had no official states to support, protect them

Prominence of Christianity Constantine's edict of Milan made Christianity a legitimate religion Called Council of Nicaea to solve conflicts within Church (Nicene Creed) Ordered a book (byblos) to be complied of agreed upon Christian works Emperor Theodosius made Christianity official state religion, 380 C.E. St. Jerome translated Bible into Latin St. Augustine harmonized Christianity with Platonic thought St. Ulfias converted Germans to Arianism The institutional church Conflicting doctrines and practices among early Christians No one dominant belief about Christianity Current belief was an outgrowth of compromise, discussion Many early schisms and controversies Donatists: should those who adjure Christianity be allowed to return Arians: Christ is solely human Monophysites: Christ is divine, human; each part is separate, one is dominant Established standardized hierarchy of church officials Bishop of Rome (Pope) became spiritual leader (Petrine Doctrine) Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch, Constantinople patriarchal cities After Rome, Christianity served as a cultural foundation


14 SPREAD OF MANICHAEISM Mani and Manichaeism Spread of Manichaeism
Prophet Mani, a Zoroastrian, drew influence from Christianity and Buddhism Perceived a cosmic struggle between light and darkness, good and evil Offered means to achieve personal salvation Ascetic lifestyle and high ethical standards Differentiation between "the elect“ and the "hearers" Spread of Manichaeism Attracted converts first in Mesopotamia and east Mediterranean region Special appeal to merchants as hearers Appeared in all large cities of Roman empire, 3rd century C.E. St. Augustine was one of the most prominent who practiced it Persecutions The Sasanid (Persian) rulers suppressed Mani's movement Roman authorities also persecuted Manichaeans Manichaeism survived in central Asia


16 SPREAD OF EPIDEMICS Pandemic vs. Epidemic Epidemic diseases
Epidemic is a disease which strikes all groups in one region Pandemic is a disease which strikes simultaneously many regions Often spread by war, trade, missionaries Epidemic diseases Common epidemics in Rome and China Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Mediterranean: population fell ¼ from 1st to 10th century C.E. China: population fell ¼ from the 1st to 7th century C.E. Persia, Ethiopia effected; India seems to have been missed Effects of epidemic diseases Chinese and Roman economies contracted; trade stiffled Small regional economies emerged Epidemics weakened Han and Roman empires

17 FALL OF THE HAN DYNASTY Internal decay of the Han state
Problems of factions and land distribution The Yellow Turban rebellion, 184 C.E. Collapse of the Han dynasty Generals usurped political authority, emperor was a puppet By 220, generals abolished Han, divided empire Nomadic peoples invaded, further dividing old Han Empire Cultural Change in Post-Han China Sinicization of nomadic peoples Withering of Confucianism Confucianism failed to maintain order; too aristocratic More individuals turned to Daoism, Buddhism: both offered hope Daoism changed to a religion of salvation Popularity of Buddhism Buddhism received strong support from nomadic rulers Between 4th/6th centuries C.E., Buddhism well established Buddhism often supported by nomads, lower classes, women Many made donations of land, money to Buddhists Buddhism merged with Chinese traditions: became religion


19 INTERNAL DECAY OF ROME Barrack Emperors
Between 235 and 284 C.E., generals frequently seized the throne Most barracks emperors died violently in coups, assassination The sheer size of the empire became a problem of control Emperor Diocletian ( C.E.) Divided the empire into two administrative parts Western Roman Empire ruled from Rome Eastern Roman Empire ruled from Nicomedia Tetrarchy: Rule by Four Two Emperors called Augustus; basically political emperor Two Associated rulers called Caesars: basically war emperor Reforms saved empire for 200 years Froze social classes; created feudalism Persecuted Christians to unite empire Reformed Roman army and defenses to fight invaders The emperor Constantine Constantine seized power, claimed to be sole emperor Established a new capital city Constantinople on Bosporus Area was richer, easy to defend, more Christian; better base of power Legalized Christianity through Edict of Milan

20 COLLAPSE IN INDIA Guptan Dynasty Dynasty’s worries
Lacked strong central government Provinces only owed tribute, tax, respect to central ruler Provincial rulers viewed emperor as related to gods But local areas largely self-governing Relied on provincial rule, type of feudalism Regional leaders often stronger than emperor Dynasty’s worries Civil war between regional leaders Invasions by Central Asia including White Huns Beaten off by Guptans but seriously weakened empire Continued raids by Huns, Central Asians kept empire in turmoil Large scale migrations from Northern India to Southern parts Dynasty ceased to exist; attempted revival failed Regional states broke off, constant warfare follows


22 NOMADIC INVASIONS Germanic migrations The Huns
From northern Europe, lived in eastern, northern parts of empire Most notable were Goths Visigoths settled in Spain, S. France; Ostrogoths settled in Italy Settled as agriculturalists, mercenary soldiers and allies of Rome Created a modified law of German tradition and Roman law Roman authorities kept Germanic peoples on the borders as a buffer The Huns Called Xiong-nu by Chinese; Chinese defeated them, sent west Huns invaded Roman Empire White Huns invaded India Black Huns invaded Persia Under Attila, Huns began expeditions from the mid-5th century C.E. Soon disappeared after the death of Attila in 453 C.E. The collapse of the western Roman empire Under Huns' pressure, Germanic peoples moved into Roman empire Established settlements in Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and north Africa Goths and Vandals sacked Rome on two separate occasions Germanic general Odovacer deposed the Roman emperor, 476 C.E. Imperial authority survived in eastern half of empire (Byzantines) Nomadic states in Western Europe, North Africa


24 WHAT REMAINED? Cosmopolitan Culture Interregional Contacts
Most of the areas retained their faith, social structures New faiths often served to preserve old ways Most areas retained idea of former classical ways as an ideal Most disruptions to top hierarchy especially aristocrats, rulers Interregional Contacts While not eliminated were often severely lessoned Regions tended to fall back on themselves, older traditions Which collapse was worse? Roman was very severe because it was so dramatic Eastern Empire survived but it was no longer Latin New rulers were radically different from previous rulers Christianity was relatively new, different from older Latin traditions Sassanid collapse worst; culture disappeared under Islam Indian, Chinese collapses was hardly noticed Traditions remained; elites remained often running new local states Ancient religious hierarchies often still in place locally, nationally


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