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Trade Routes Foundations – 600 CE. Silk Road Originally as interregional trade, trade route grew during Han dynasty: 1 st -2 nd Century CE to forge alliances.

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Presentation on theme: "Trade Routes Foundations – 600 CE. Silk Road Originally as interregional trade, trade route grew during Han dynasty: 1 st -2 nd Century CE to forge alliances."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trade Routes Foundations – 600 CE

2 Silk Road Originally as interregional trade, trade route grew during Han dynasty: 1 st -2 nd Century CE to forge alliances with non-Chinese nomads.

3 Silk Road Trade with China, Roman Empire, India, Middle East, Egypt Increased spread of Buddhism, visitors to other regions

4 Silk Road As Trade Route Case Study Trade routes –Overland trade routes linked China to Roman empire –Sea lanes joined Asia, Africa, and Mediterranean basin into one network Trade goods –Silk and spices traveled west –Central Asia produced large horses and jade, sold in China –Roman empire provided glassware, jewelry, artworks, perfumes, textiles

5 Silk Road As Trade Route Case Study Cultural Exchanges Along Silk Road –The spread of Buddhism and Hinduism Buddhism in central Asia and China –First present in oasis towns of central Asia along silk roads –Further spread to steppe lands –Foreign merchants as Buddhists in China, first century B.C.E. –Popularity of monasteries and missionaries, fifth century C.E. Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia

6 Silk Road As Trade Route Case Study Cultural Exchanges Along Silk Road –The spread of Christianity Christianity in the Mediterranean basin –Missionaries attracted converts –Christian communities flourished in Mediterranean basin by late third century C.E. Christianity in Southwest Asia follows the trade routes –Sizable communities in Mesopotamia and Iran, 2 nd century C.E. –Sizable number of converts in southwest Asia until the 7 th century C.E. –Nestorians emphasized human nature of Jesus, 5 th C.E. –Nestorian communities in central Asia, India, and China by 7 th century C.E.

7 Silk Road As Trade Route Case Study Cultural Exchanges Along the Silk Roads –The spread of Manichaeism; Mani and Manichaeism –Prophet Mani, a Zoroastrian: from Christianity and Buddhism –Dualism: perceived a cosmic struggle between light and darkness, good and evil –Offered means to achieve personal salvation –Ascetic lifestyle and high ethical standards Spread of Manichaeism; appealed to merchants –Attracted converts first in Mesopotamia and east Mediterranean region –Appeared in all large cities of Roman empire, third century C.E. Persecuted by Sasanids and Romans but survived in central Asia

8 Silk Road As Trade Route Case Study The spread of epidemic disease –Epidemic diseases Common epidemics in Rome and China: –smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Roman empire: population dropped by a quarter from the first to tenth century C.E. China: population dropped by a quarter from the first to seventh century C.E. –Effects of epidemic diseases Both Chinese and Roman economies contracted Small regional economies emerged Epidemics weakened Han and Roman empires

9 Mediterranean Trade Routes Spanned the Mediterranean: Persia, Egypt, Rome, India On land AND sea Ideas and goods spread: Hellenism, numbers, writing systems, etc.  explosion of intellectual activity Idea of Monotheism

10 Mediterranean Trade Routes Traded: –Slaves –Amber –Iron –Animals/agricultural products –Wine –Gemstones –pottery

11 Indian Ocean Trade The route of the spice trade (origins: Spice Islands: cloves and cinnamon) “He who controls the Spice controls the empire,” (Frank Herbert, Dune).

12 Indian Ocean Trade Improved nautical knowledge: compass, rudder, etc. Used monsoons to sail Arab (Islam) settlements in Africa No single dominating power About CE

13 MesoAmerican Trade Allowed Mayan communities to acquire goods otherwise unavailable (such as turquoise) Primarily through the Yucatan Peninsula Caused widespread hegemony


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