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Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 11 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 11 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 11 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads

2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements Changed in classical period  Improvement of infrastructure  Development of empires

3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 Trade Networks Develop Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of Monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes

4 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire Sea Lanes and Maritime trade as well

5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 The Silk Roads 200 BCE – 30 CE

6 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage

7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE

8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 The spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE

9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 Buddhism in China Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5 th c. CE

10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Christianity in Mediterranean Basin Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3 rd c. CE Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, Europe Sizeable communities as far east as India Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced

11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Spread of Manichaeism Mani a devout Zoroastrian ( CE) Viewed himself a prophet for all humanity Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism Dualist - good vs. evil, light vs. dark Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sassanid persecution  Mani arrested, dies in captivity Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute

12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 The Spread of Epidemic Disease Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency

13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires

14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Internal Decay of the Han State Court intrigue Formation of actions Problem of land distribution  Large landholders develop private armies Epidemics Peasant rebellions  184 CE Yellow Turban Rebellion

15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Collapse of the Han Dynasty Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure Alliance with landowners 200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms Immigration of northern nomads increases China after the Han Dynasty, 220 CE

16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation

17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors The Barracks Emperors claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles Epidemics Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies

18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 Diocletian (r CE) Divided empire into two administrative districts Co-Emperors, dual Lieutenants  “Tetrarchs” Currency, budget reform Relative stability disappears after Diocletian's death, civil war follows Constantine emerges victorious

19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity  Formerly buffer states for Roman Empire Attacked by Huns under Attila in 5 th c. CE Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman Empire Sacked Rome in 410 CE, established Germanic emperor in 476 CE

20 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 Cultural Change in the Roman Empire Growth of Christianity  Constantine’s Vision, 312 CE  Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice  Converts to Christianity 380 CE Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman Empire


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