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V. Age of Revolution I. Renaissance II. Reformation III. Scientific Revolution IV. Enlightenment V. Age of Revolution VI. Industrial Revolution VII. Penetration.

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Presentation on theme: "V. Age of Revolution I. Renaissance II. Reformation III. Scientific Revolution IV. Enlightenment V. Age of Revolution VI. Industrial Revolution VII. Penetration."— Presentation transcript:

1 V. Age of Revolution I. Renaissance II. Reformation III. Scientific Revolution IV. Enlightenment V. Age of Revolution VI. Industrial Revolution VII. Penetration of Africa and India VIII. World Wars IX. Cold War X. Modern World

2 Change Over Time Explain the development and change in the current of thought in the Western World from Have intro with ORIGINAL THESIS!!!

3 Compare and contrast how revolutions in one country incited revolutions elsewhere. Choose three countries: –France –Haiti –Brazil –Mexico –Spanish South America

4 Causes of American Revolution 1)Enlightenment philosophy 2)Frustrations over Mercantile policies of England 3)Taxation without Representation

5 Colonial America 17 th century: Britain colonizes east coast of N. America : French-Indian War/7 Years War Problems: 1) cost of war 2) cost of administering colonies 3) war with Native Americans Britain passes series of tax and mercantile laws

6 “No taxation without representation” Proclamation Act of 1763: colonists could not travel west past Appalachian Mountains Sugar and Currency Acts of 1764 Stamp Act of 1765 Townsend Duties in 1767 Tea Act of 1773 Boston Massacre:1770 Boston Tea Party: 1772 Intolerable Acts Thomas Paine Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence

7 American Revolution Paul Revere/Minutemen/Lexin gton Guerilla tactics Second Continental Congress: organized army with G. Washington 1777: Saratoga; France commits ships, soldiers, weapons, and money 1781:Yorktown 1783: Independence recognized Articles of Confederation 1787: Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia 1791: Bill of Rights

8 Notes British Empire in America Most colonies had British governors appointed by King Each American colony had a representative assembly British Parliament passed laws for the colonies Navigation Acts in 1600s passed to protect GB trade Sugar Act of 1764  increased cost of foreign molasses and endangered colonial exports  lower New England profitable trade with French and Spanish Caribbean sugar colonies Currency Act of 1764  Outlawed colonial practice of issuing paper money  This caused restricted trade and limited money supply  This lead to widespread anger  Which caused organized boycotts of British goods Stamp Act of 1765 Imposed a direct tax to be paid on all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and nearly all other types of printed material

9 Notes 1765: NY protest Women organized boycott Sons of Liberty: held public meetings, intimidated royal officials, and enforced the boycotts violent protest + trade boycott = repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766 Colonial Power play Great Britain: Created new taxes and duties, gave more power to colonial governors, and sent British troops to quell urban riots New England: New boycotts -cut British imports by 2/3 Destroyed property Bullied or attacked royal officials (tar and feather) Great Britain: Dissolved the colonial legislature of Massachusetts Dispatched a warship and 2 regiments of soldiers on British streets Boston Tea Pary March 5, 1770: British troops fired into an angry British crowd and killed 5 people This massacre of innocent Americans radicalized public opinion More taxes Again, GB repealed some taxes and duties Yet, granted British East India Company a monopoly a monopoly for importing tea to the colonies Boston Tea Party 1772 Protesters disguised as Amerindians dumped 10,000 of tea into the harbor Intolerable Acts Closed Boston harbor Required colonists to house British soldiers British response to the Tea Party Appoint military man, Thomas Gage as governor of Massachusetts who closed the port of Boston: 1) Public order depended on British troops 2) Public administration in the hands of a general

10 Articles of Confederation Basic Ideals and Structures of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Loose Association of StatesStates quarreled over such things as boundary lines and trade. The government had no power to end such disputes. Limited central government powersCongress would not regulate trade and could not issue an official currency One vote per state in CongressVote of 9 out of 13 states needed for important measures. Change required unanimous vote of states No taxation powers for CongressCongress could not collect taxes to pay the nation’s debts or for necessary programs No national executive branchNo national executive to enforce laws No national judicial branchesNo national courts to interpret laws or to judge those who broke them

11 Bill of Rights Amendment IAmendment I [Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition (1791)] Amendment IIAmendment II [Right to Bear Arms (1791)] Amendment IIIAmendment III [Quartering of Troops (1791)] Amendment IVAmendment IV [Search and Seizure (1791)] Amendment VAmendment V [Grand Jury, Double Jeopardy, Self-Incrimination, Due Process (1791)] Amendment VIAmendment VI [Criminal Prosecutions - Jury Trial, Right to Confront and to Counsel (1791)] Amendment VIIAmendment VII [Common Law Suits - Jury Trial (1791)] Amendment VIIIAmendment VIII [Excess Bail or Fines, Cruel and Unusual Punishment (1791)] Amendment IXAmendment IX [Non-Enumerated Rights (1791)] Amendment XAmendment X [Rights Reserved to States (1791)]

12 11-27 Amendment XIAmendment XI [Suits Against a State (1795)] Amendment XIIAmendment XII [Election of President and Vice-President (1804)] Amendment XIIIAmendment XIII [Abolition of Slavery (1865)] Amendment XIVAmendment XIV [Privileges and Immunities, Due Process, Equal Protection, Apportionment of Representatives, Civil War Disqualification and Debt (1868)] Amendment XVAmendment XV [Rights Not to Be Denied on Account of Race (1870)] Amendment XVIAmendment XVI [Income Tax (1913)] Amendment XVIIAmendment XVII [Election of Senators (1913) Amendment XVIIIAmendment XVIII [Prohibition (1919)] Amendment XIXAmendment XIX [Women's Right to Vote (1920) Amendment XXAmendment XX [Presidential Term and Succession (1933)] Amendment XXIAmendment XXI [Repeal of Prohibition (1933)]

13 22-27 Amendment XXIIAmendment XXII [Two Term Limit on President (1951)] Amendment XXIIIAmendment XXIII [Presidential Vote in D.C. (1961)] Amendment XXIVAmendment XXIV [Poll Tax (1964)] Amendment XXVAmendment XXV [Presidential Succession (1967)] Amendment XXVIAmendment XXVI [Right to Vote at Age 18 (1971)] Amendment XXVIIAmendment XXVII [Compensation of Members of Congress (1992)]

14 The French Revolution

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16 French Society First Estate Clergy 130,000 Owned 10% of land Gained wealth trough tithes and ecclesiastical fees Second Estate Nobles high administrative, judicial, military, and church positions Important participants in wholesale trade, banking, manufacturing, and mining Third Estate 95% of population Everyone else: wealthy financier – homeless beggar. Bourgeoisie (boor-swah-ZEE): middle class Gained wealth from commerce and manufacturing. Owned 1/3 of the nations land 80% of French population were peasants. Artisans and other skilled workers, small shopkeepers and peddlers, and small land owners held a more privileged position in society.

17 1)War Debt  War of the Austrian Succession  7 years war  American Revolution 2)Droughts in French harvests 3)Poor become poorer (1760: 25,000 prostitutes; 40,000 orphans yearly) 4)Extravagant court of King Louis XV Problems before Revolution

18 Revolution begins Louis XVI calls Estates General (all 3 estates) June 17, 1789: 3 rd estate forms National Assembly Tennis Court Oath July 14, 1789: peasants storm the Bastille “Great Fear” NA: abolish feudal and estate system August 1789: “The Declaration of the Rights of Man” October 1789: March to Versailles

19 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Inspired be Declaration of Independence (17??) Manifested enlightenment ideas (Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Jefferson) Popular sovereignty and Representative government Equality, Fraternity, Liberty Freedom of speech, press, and religion Equal protection before the law Did not grant equal rights to women

20 Starving Women Gone Wild Poor French harvest; 1/3 unemployment in Paris; high cost of bread. Parisian market women organized thousands of people to march 12 miles to Versailles Demanded action from NA Arrived and demanded bread; “Let them eat cake.” Took bread and flour; forced royal family to go to Paris; aristocrats heads on pikes

21 Pg. 570” “Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned.”

22 1791: New Constitution (#1) Kept Monarchy, but created unicameral legislation – Legislative Assembly Seized church lands; priests to take loyalty oaths >>> counterrevolutionary movements Neither side content Austria and Prussia invade France; patriotic French army prevails by end of 1792 King and queen fail in escape to Austria; treason? August 1792: LA imprisons king; call for National Convention by popular election

23 National Convention: New Constitution (#2) National Convention becomes ruling body Monarchy abolished; France declared a Republic 1793: NC convicts Louis XVI of treason; Guillotine

24 Committee of Public Safety (New Constitution #3) Foreign threat (Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, and Spain) and internal chaos Committee of Public Safety Jacobins French victory at Valmy saves Paris and Revolution sans-culottes Maximillian Robespierre : “Reign of Terror”: 40,000 under guillotine; 30,000 jailed Radical, or just plain silly, ideas If you live by the guillotine…1794 guillotine splits Robespierre and CPS

25 The Directory (New Constitution #4) 1795: Directory: 5 man executive government Protected land ownership Weakened power of masses Weak domestic policy Age of “republic” dead Strong military Napoleon Bonaparte general by age 24

26 Napoleon (New Constitution #5) 1799: Napoleon returns to France and overthrows Directory Popular authoritarianism Declares himself First Consul with new Constitution France dominated Europe 1804: declares himself Emperor

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28 Napoleon’s Europe Domestic policy reforms in agriculture, infrastructure, public education Normalized relations with Church Restored tolerance and stability Napoleonic Codes (1804): recognized equality of French citizens (male); protected property rights; instituted some enlightenment ideas and human rights; rule of law WOMEN DENIED POLITICAL RIGHTS Civil liberties limited Foreign policy Conquered Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, kingdoms of Italy Dissolved HRE into confederacy of German states 1810: empire at peak Conflicts with GB Nationalistic uprisings 1812: attacked Russia Mistake Army decimated 1814: Napoleon forced into exile on Elba Monarchy restored Napoleon returns from exile

29 The Congress of Vienna Prince von Metternich of Austria Alexander I of Russia Duke of Wellington of Britain 1815: decrees balance of power among existing powers France cut to pre-Napoleonic borders; no indemnities New kingdoms in Poland and Netherlands Reinstate absolute monarchs in France, Spain, Holland, Italian city-states Restore royal order and erase ideals of French Revolution and Napoleon

30 Ebb and Flow of Chaos Return of conservative monarchies Still movements for democracies and national self-determination 1821: Greek against Ottoman control (1830: recognized with RS, FR GB help) 1830: King Charles X abdicates French throne; enfranchisement extended Revolutions of 1848: Second French Republic: voting rights for men, slavery abolished, end of death penalty, and 10-hour workday; elected Louis Napoleon (nephew) who becomes dictator and Emperor Napoleon III until Other revolutions: Vienna, Rome, and Berlin; all failed in the end

31 notes Fiscal Crisis Poor were growing rapidly Led many to crime and beggary Streets swarmed with beggars & prostitutes - 25,000 prostitutes in ,000 children abandoned yearly by parents Periodic outburst of violent protest because of increase of fees and dues and lack of: - descent housing - steady employment - food Tax Raising Problems Estates General in order to raise taxes Three Estates come together. 3 rd Estate wanted delegates to have individual votes. Third Estate breaks away from the Estates General and becomes known as National Assembly. National Assembly took Tennis Court Oath “Great Fear” Wave of violence that spread throughout France after fall of the Bastille Fearful Nobles of the National Assembly passed reforms to destroy feudalism: -abolition of feudal dues and tithes -tax the nobility -open the government, army and church office to all male citizens National Assembly also passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen End of Old Order August 4, 1789, nobles in NA vote to end feudalism in France (no more dues) Nobles began to pay tax All male citizens could hold government, army or church office Estate system over

32 Notes National Convention August 1792, radicals kill imprisoned nobles and clergy in the “September Massacre” Radicals take over the Assembly and calls for National Convention to create new constitution French victory at Valmy saves Paris and Revolition NC convicts Louis XVI of conspiracy Left, Moderate, Right Jacobins: middle class members of the National Convention who were extreme radicals; The Mountain Girondists: members of the NC who wanted to protect the middle class moderates Conservatives: wanted to keep things as they were Reactionaries: wanted to return things to how they use to be Sans-culottes Ordinary citizens for whom the revolution was being fought Wore pants Saw themselves as heroes and heroines of the revolution Supported by the Jacobins Reign of Terror July Jacobins set out to crush opposition in France during a period called the “Reign of Terror” Maximilien Robespierre Swift trials an harsh punishments (many false statements) 40,000 people killed from Marie Antoinette to commoners (85%) 30,000 imprisioned Guillotine

33 Notes The Directory Robespierre sends other Jacobin leaders to the Guillotine Robespierre, in turn, sent to the Guillotine The Directory is formed New constitution: only those who owned property could vote Executive council of 5 members used army to put down protests Absolutely inept – people wanted new government 1799, Napoleon stages coup d’etat against the Directory in Paris New constitution with 3 consuls for executive branch 1802, named himself consul for life 1804, named himself Emperor of France Napoleon rewrote the French law with The Civil Code 1804 (Napoleonic Code) Napoleonic Code Equality of citizen before the law Religious toleration Advancement based on merit Protection of property Placed the rights of the state above the rights of the individual (Restricted rights of free speech and press through censorship) Discrimination worsened against women Napoleon’s System Depended on French Arms and Diplomacy Defeated Austria, Italy, and Prussia Napoleon failed to defeat Britain in 1805 at Battle of Trafalgar By 1812: -Napoleon is king of Italy -brother Joseph is king of Spain -brother Louis is king of Holland Nationalism emerges in countries that are paying taxes and sending soldiers to France Also, in 1812: 600,000 soldiers to Russia: Two Fronts Russia “scorched earth”, then Russian winter with no shelter France retreats, Russia attacks, 400,000 of French army die

34 Notes Napoleon’s Next Objective, Russia June 1812, the campaign starts with 600,000 men Inconclusive battle at Borodino Napoleon press on Moscow Russians set city on fire & brutal winter destroyed army (30,00 men return) Austria and Prussia ally with Great Britain and Russia Napoleon’s Downfall April 1814, he is exiled to Elba island French Monarchy is restored Napoleon escapes for Elba Goes back to France After 100 days in Power he is defeated in Waterloo in Belgium Final exile on St. Helena, South Atlantic where he died 1821

35 Haitian Revolution I. Hispaniola with brutal slave regimes: Saint Domingue (1/2 French) and Santo Domingo (1/2 Spanish) II. French Revolution A. 1789: Estates General called 1. wealthy white planters 2. gens de coleur 3. Colonial authority weakened B. 1791: Reaction on the island 1. warfare between free whites and blacks 2. Slave rebellions from North of island spreads III. War for Independence A. Toussaint L’Ouverture B. 1794: French National Convention abolishes slavery C. 1798: Defeat of British and freed slaves in Santo Domingo D. 1802: Defeat troops of Napoleon 1. women fighting 2. Toussaint L’Ouverture died in French jail E. free Republic of Haiti (2 nd independent nation in Western hemisphere)

36 Patriots v. Loyalists (Royalists)

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38 Independence of Brazil 1807: Napoleon invades Portugal 1808: Royal family of Portugal flees to Brazil 1821: King John VI returns to Portugal; son Pedro stays and joins side for independence 1822: Pedro declares Brazil independent; Constitutional monarchy with Emperor Pedro 1889: Monarchy overthrown by republicans

39 Spanish South America 1808: Napoleon invades Spain; places brother Joseph Bonaparte on throne -Junta Central: Spanish patriots fighting against Napoleon; claim power over Spanish colonies : Local juntas in Spanish colonies overthrow colonial officials in Venezuela, Mexico, and Bolivia -Draconian repression by Spanish officials galvanizes sense of independence from Spain 1810: new independent revolutions

40 “Politics make strange bedfellows” Creoles from Caracas (Venezuela) Revolutionary junta of large landowners 1. popular sovereignty 2. representative democracy 3.retain slavery Opposed full citizenship of blacks and mix-ed race majority Defense of the Spanish Empire  Loyalists in colonial administration  Church hierarchy  Free blacks  Slaves

41 Spanish South American Independence Simon Bolivar ( ) : balanced war between patriots and loyalists 1820: Patriots take control Bolivar’s army controls Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia By 1824: last Spanish armies defeated

42 Mexico I. Mexico A. Spain’s richest and most populous colony B. Class conflict: Spanish, creole, native II. War for Independence A. Central Mexico: wealthy ranchers and farmers force Amerindians from native land B. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla 1. Parish priest from Dolores 2. Rang church bells and delivered fiery speeches to rebel against Spanish officials 3. Rural and urban poor united by oppression fought; poor military discipline without weapons : wealthy Mexicans captured and executed Hidalgo; another parish priest, Jose Morelos, takes up mission C. Colonel Augustin de Iturbide 1. Forms alliance with insurgesnts and some loyalists : declares Mexico’s independence 3. Conservative origin: monarchical government: Iturbide crowned emperor D. Mexican republic -army overthrows Iturbide; republic established


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