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French Revolution. Strengthening the Crown Cardinal Richelieu- advisor to French monarch –Goal: strengthen the monarchy Louis XIV: inherited throne at.

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Presentation on theme: "French Revolution. Strengthening the Crown Cardinal Richelieu- advisor to French monarch –Goal: strengthen the monarchy Louis XIV: inherited throne at."— Presentation transcript:

1 French Revolution

2 Strengthening the Crown Cardinal Richelieu- advisor to French monarch –Goal: strengthen the monarchy Louis XIV: inherited throne at 4 yrs. Old –Reign –“Sun King”, “Most Christian King”, divine right –Palace of Versailles –Revoke Edict of Nantes

3 Strengthening the Crown Louis XIV –Appoints Jean Baptiste Colbert as economic advisor Mercantilism= need for empire Increase empire= more resources= more wealth –Numerous wars= debt

4 French Revolution Economic problems: –War debts –Poor taxation policies –Poor harvests –Lavish lifestyle of monarchy Louis XVI summoned Estates General –governing body with members from each estate –Had not met in 175 years (absolutism)

5 French Revolution Conflict between the estates at the meeting June 17, Third Estate declares themselves the National Assembly July 14, storming of Bastille August, Declaration of Rights of Man

6 French Revolution National Assembly governed France on behalf of the 3 rd Estate from new Constitution ratified –Created Constitutional Monarchy; King retains executive power Austrians and Prussians invade France to restore absolute monarchy –Marie Antionette was sister of Austrian Emperor –Unsuccessful

7 French Revolution Continued unrest= another new Constitution –Declares France a republic –Established the National Convention as the new ruling body Ruled from : National Convention (led by radical Jacobins) imprison royal family and behead king and queen

8 French Revolution Reign of Terror: –Constitution once again thrown out –Committee of Public Safety created to facilitate the revolution Led by Maximilien Robespierre and Jacobins –Thousands beheaded –Eventually, Robespierre too was beheaded 1795: yet another government established, called the Directory

9 Rise of Napoleon Directory created strong military –Napoleon Bonaparte popular military man 24 at the time –1799: overthrows Directory and declares himself First Consul

10 Napoleon Popular ruler –Many domestic reforms –Napoleonic Codes (1804)- implemented some Enlightenment ideas and equality for men Begins to build a French empire in Europe –Conquers Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, and parts of Italy –1804- crowns himself emperor

11 Napoleon 1810: empire at its height 1812: attacks Russia= mistake Conquered areas use this as opportunity to defeat and overthrow Napoleon –Exiled –But, disagreements about how to restore order

12 Napoleon Napoleon returns, tries to regain power Defeated at Waterloo and permanently exiled to St. Helena, later dies there. Other nations meet to restore balance of power

13 Congress of Vienna 1815: Congress of Vienna –French territory return to pre-Napoleonic borders –Returned rulers of areas conquered by Napoleon –French monarchy restored, but with Constitutional limits

14 France…. Continued 1830: another republic created, lasts until Revolutions of : Louis Napoleon established a second French empire 1870: Louis-Napoleon overthrown and yet another republic created How is all that for confusing????? This is just one example of how confusing European politics can be.


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