Presentation on theme: " Les Hanson 2002 The Clause, Fragments, and Run ons Identifying and Correcting Sentence Errors."— Presentation transcript:
Les Hanson 2002 The Clause, Fragments, and Run ons Identifying and Correcting Sentence Errors
Clauses wA clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb SubjectVerb Youstink. Sallyis talking. SubjectVerb Ihategrammar Sallyis talkingloudly wMost clauses have further information after the verb
Two Types of Clauses wIndependent clause (Main clause) Can stand alone as a sentence Can be joined to another clause Fred filled a cardboard tube with a poster. wDependent clause (Subordinate clause) Cannot stand alone as a sentence Must be joined to an independent clause Because he wanted to run into the store. A word that joins clauses is a conjunction
Joining Clauses wA dependent clause/subordinate clause can be joined to an independent clause to make a sentence I wanted to make a new tablecloth because the old one was dirty and disgusting. Or Because the old one was dirty and disgusting, I wanted to make a new tablecloth. When the sentence starts with the dependent clause, it must have a comma before the independent clause
Types of Dependent/Subordinate Clauses wAn adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. wIt tells what kind or which one and generally follows the word it modifies. wIt is usually introduced by a relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, that wExample – I am now reading this book, which is a historical novel about the Irish Revolt of The adjective clause modifies the noun book, telling what kind of book.
Types of Dependent/Subordinate Clauses wAn adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb. wIt tells when, how, where, why, to what extent. wExample – Donna sounds as if she has caught a cold. (modifies sounds) wAn adverb clause starts with a subordinating conjunction – after, although, if, when (full list on pg. 97)
Types of Dependent/Subordinate Clauses wA noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun – subject, pred nominative, direct obj, etc. wExample – She believes that lost time is never found again. (direct object) wCommon introductory words for noun clauses – pg. 99 for complete list – how, that, what, when, whom, etc
Fragments wFragments look like sentences but are missing a subject or a verb, or they are put together incorrectly. FragmentError Started baking the pieNo subject Apple in his hand.No verb After coming home from the orchard. A dependent clause by itself
Correcting Fragments wSubjects or verbs can be added wFragments can be joined together wAll of the following are correct With the apple in his hand, after returning from the orchard, he started to bake a pie. He started to bake a pie with the apple in his hand after returning from the orchard. After returning from the orchard, with an apple in his hand, he started to bake a pie.
Run-ons wRun-ons (fused sentences) occur when clauses are joined incorrectly. The pie did not taste good, it had no sugar in it because he forgot it. Comma splice Run-on Then he burned it in the oven and my mother came home and she yelled at him because of this.
Ways to Correct Run-ons 1.Join the clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction And, or, but, so, yet The pie did not taste good, and it had no sugar in it because he forgot it. 2.Join the clauses with a subordinating conjunction Because, although, if, when, since, after Because of this, my mother yelled at him when she came home.
Ways to Correct Run-ons 3.Make the clauses into separate sentences.
Ways to Correct Run-ons 4.Join two independent clauses with a semicolon (;)if they are closely related. You may include a conjunctive adverb along with the semicolon: however, for example, therefore, moreover, indeed, consequently Example – My mother threw the apple pie in the trash; however, she also made us a new one.
Correct the following 1. The new apple pie was amazing and I layered it with tons of whipping cream this made it even more delicious. 2. Didn’t care for it. Angela would rather have chocolate brownies. Because she likes chocolate.
Types of sentence by structure wA sentence can be classified, depending on its structure, as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex wA simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses. wExample – Later, they drove to school and decorated the cafeteria for the Ecology Club’s annual banquet.
Types of sentence by structure wA compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses. wThese independent clauses are joined by (1) a comma and coordinating conjunction, (2) a semi-colon, or (3) a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb like therefore or however. wExample – After an hour, they took a short break; then they went back to work. wNOTE – Do not mistake a simple sentence with a comp. subject or verb for a compound sentence
Types of sentence by structure wA complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. wExample – When they had finished their work, they complimented each other on the results.
Types of sentence by structure wA compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. wExample – Cora waited for the right moment to ask Keith to the banquet, and he accepted her invitation, adding that he had been planning to ask her.