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“I will not go down to posterity talking bad grammar.”

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1 “I will not go down to posterity talking bad grammar.”
Grammar Review “I will not go down to posterity talking bad grammar.” - Benjamin Disraeli

2 Words Groups Three types of word groups: Clauses Sentences Phrases

3 Clauses A clause is a group of words that contains a subject – a “do-er” or “be-er” of something (this word will usually be a noun or a noun substitute) – and a verb – what the subject does or is. Bob laughs. (subject: Bob verb: laughs)

4 If these are the only elements contained in the word group, it is considered to be an INDEPENDENT CLAUSE This means that it is able to stand by itself, and its meaning is complete

5 Clauses may also be made DEPENDENT by the addition of a joining word called a subordinate conjunction This word reduces the clause to a lesser (or subordinate) role in a sentence; it is no longer the fundamental unit within the sentence

6 Some subordinate conjunctions are:
Although If Whenever Because Before Which Since After

7 Some DEPENDENT clauses are:
When Bob laughs… If we try… Because dogs bark… After the student learns… These clauses must be joined to another INDEPENDENT clause, to make a complete thought: When Bob laughs, the walls shake.

8 The Sentence When you join clauses in this way, you are really building sentences Each sentence must contain at least one independent clause; though it may contain other things, the independent clause is absolutely necessary If there is no independent clause, you do not have a sentence

9 Simple Sentences A simple sentence contains only an independent clause
Sarah swims at the pool. I bought a new sweater.

10 Compound Sentences Compound sentences contain two or more independent clauses joined by coordinate conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, yet, and so)

11 Complex Sentences Complex sentences contains a combination of at least one independent clause with one or more dependent clauses While I was waiting in the library, Billy made a phone call. After we ate dinner, we watched a movie.

12 Phrases Anything that is not a clause or a sentence is a PHRASE
Any group of words that does not contain a subject or a verb is a phrase

13 Some PHRASES are: walking down the street across the river
beside the school with the flagpole over between the car and the house with my friend Paul

14 Common Sentence Errors
Incorrect subject-verb agreement Sentence fragments Run-on sentences Incorrect pronoun, tense, and person agreement Modifier errors Lack of parallelism

15 Subject-Verb Agreement
Subjects (“do-ers” of an action or “be-ers” of a state) agree with their verbs in person and number Singular subjects always take singular verbs, and plural subjects take plural verbs He walks They walk He sings They sing He is They are

16 Sentence Fragments A fragment is a piece of a sentence that is mistaken for a complete sentence A fragment is missing either a subject or a verb: Running down the street and around the corner. For example, adding, subtracting, and multiplying. After I had finished my homework and chores.

17 Run-On Sentences Run-on sentences are created by trying to cram too much information into a single sentence without correctly joining the elements that make up the structure of the sentence The most common run-on sentences are created by putting two independent clauses together with only a comma – this is called a comma splice

18 Comma Splice: I slept in, I missed the bus.
I slept in, so I missed the bus. Because I slept in, I missed the bus. I slept in; I missed the bus.

19 Pronoun, Tense, and Person Agreement
Always strive for consistency in pronouns, tense, and person Jumping from one to another person or tense is confusing; using ambiguous or inaccurate pronouns is also confusing

20 Pronoun Agreement: Fred asked the neighbour to walk his dog. (Whose dog? Ted’s or the neighbour’s?) A person should mind their own business. (“A person” is only one; “their” is plural)

21 Tense Agreement: Generally, there are three kinds of time you may refer to in writing: past, present, and future If you’re writing in the past tense, stay with the past tense unless the time references change (the same holds true for present and future)

22  So she came up to me and asks, “Where is the train station
 So she came up to me and asks, “Where is the train station?” (This is incorrect due to the switch from past “came” to present “asks” when the time referred to has not changed).

23 Person Agreement: Keep the person (I, you, he or she, we, you, they) consistent: I live near to the airport, so when I’m trying to sleep in, the noise of the airplanes taking off and landing keeps you awake. (Why would the noise of the airplanes keep you awake if I’m the one sleeping?) One should always keep your eyes open. (In a sentence such as this one, you may use “you” or “one,” but don’t mix them in the same sentence

24 Modifier Problems Modifiers are words or groups of words that describe, explain, or intensify other words or groups of words Two kinds of modifiers: Adjectives Adverbs

25 Misplaced Modifiers: The modifier is in the wrong position in the sentence. Put the modifier as close as possible to the thing modified I only bought one ice cream cone. (Probably I intend the “only” to modify the “one”.) I bought only one ice cream cone.

26 Dangling Modifiers: The modified element, though implied, is not actually given in the sentence Driving the tractor in the field, a new-born calf lay in the grass. (Since the calf can’t drive a tractor, this sentence doesn’t make sense. Who saw the calf? Who was driving?) Driving the tractor in the field, Mary found a new-born calf lying in the grass.

27 Lack of Parallelism Lack of parallelism can occur when you’re using lists or series of items Whenever you are speaking of more than one item, place them all in the same grammatical form (nouns with nouns, adjectives with adjectives, “ing” words with “ing” words, etc.)

28 Professionals include teachers and people who fix teeth.
Professionals include teachers and dentists. I like swimming, skiing, and to paint. I like swimming, skiing, and painting. He’s handsome, and has intelligence too. He’s handsome, and intelligent too.

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