2I. Tensions Rise Between North and South A. North and South followed different paths1. North – industry, cities, immigrantsgrowing anti-slavery2. South – agriculture, plantations,slaverya. justified slavery
3I. Tensions Rise Between North and South B. Slavery and Territorial Expansion1. Wilmot Proviso – tried to outlaw slaveryin territory taken from Mexicoa. Free Soil Party2. The Compromise of 1850a. Temporary -Did not settle slavery
4Wilmot Proviso 1850Henry Clay addressing the Senate, The California gold rush pushed the Wilmot Proviso issue into the spotlight because in September of 1849 California applied for admission to the Union as a free state. White miners had resented the advantages to slave owners of their African-American labor, and proposed a clause in the California state constitution prohibiting "slavery or involuntary servitude." The national balance between free and slave states had been maintained since 1820 by admitting new states in free state/slave state pairs, but the Southerners feared that the admission of California would upset this balance.
5I. Tensions Rise Between North and South C. The Crisis Deepens1. The Fugitive Slave Act increasedNorthern anger2. Outrage Over the Act - Stowe wrote“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
6I. Tensions Rise Between North and South D. Violence Erupts1. The Kansas-Nebraska Act – let the newstates decide slavery for themselves2. Led to “Bleeding Kansas” – violencebetween pro- and anti-slavery in Kansas3. Violence in Congress – Also known as,“Bleeding Sumner” – Senator Preston Brooksbeat Senator Charles Sumner with a cane
7II. Slavery Dominates Politics A. Slavery and Political Division1. Republican Party Forms – Whigs break upa. Anti-slavery, pro-North partyb. nominated John C. Fremont (1856)2. Election of Democratsa. Pro-slavery, pro-South partyb. nominated James Buchanan (1856)c. Know-Nothing Party nominated Fillmore but they hadlittle strengthd. Buchanan won, but Republicans showedthey had power (in North) and slavery dividedthe nation
8II. Slavery Dominates Politics B. The Breaking Point1. The Dred Scott Casea. Dred Scott sued for his freedom after hisowner died and he lostb. The Court’s Decision – Scott wasproperty and had no rights plus Congresshad no power to limit slaveryc. Historical Impact – The MO Compromisewas void plus no state could be a “free state”therefore the entire US was opened to slaveryaccording to the Supreme Court
9II. Slavery Dominates Politics C. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates1. Lincoln – slavery wrong, stop expansion2. Douglas – popular sovereignty (let eachstate decide)3. Lincoln lost, but became a nationalfigure
10II. Slavery Dominates Politics D. John Brown’s raid1. Brown captured a federal armory tostart a slave rebellion2. He was captured and hung3. North praised him, South was angry
11III. Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession A. The Election of 18601. The Split in the Democratic Party - Democrats broke upa. Northern Democrats – popular sovereigntyb. Southern Democrats – protect slavery1) They nominated two different candidates2. Two Political Racesa. Lincoln vs. Douglas in North1) Republicans – opposed expanding slaveryb. Breckinridge vs. Bell in Southc. Lincoln won – more electoral votes in North due to largerpopulation1) did not want to abolish slavery2) the South did not trust him
12III. Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession B. Southern States Secede1. The Confederate States of Americaa. Southern states seceded (withdrew) from the Union(just like they threatened if Lincoln won)b. They said states’ rights allowed themc. They joined voluntarily, they could leaved. Nominated Jefferson Davis president of the Confederacy2. The Union’s Responsea. The Union said they could not3. The Failure of Compromisea. The Crittenden Compromise failed, which proposed slavery being protectedsouth of the line proposed in the MO Compromiseb. Slavery had pulled the nation apart4. Lincoln’s Inauguration (1861)a. promised not to abolish slaveryb. but, said he would not allow secessionc. What would be done about the Union forts in South?