I. Tensions Rise Between North and South A. North and South followed different paths 1. North – industry, cities, immigrants growing anti-slavery 2. South – agriculture, plantations, slavery a. justified slavery
I. Tensions Rise Between North and South B. Slavery and Territorial Expansion 1. Wilmot Proviso – tried to outlaw slavery in territory taken from Mexico a. Free Soil Party 2. The Compromise of 1850 a. Temporary -Did not settle slavery
Wilmot Proviso 1850 Henry Clay addressing the Senate, 1850. The California gold rush pushed the Wilmot Proviso issue into the spotlight because in September of 1849 California applied for admission to the Union as a free state. White miners had resented the advantages to slave owners of their African-American labor, and proposed a clause in the California state constitution prohibiting "slavery or involuntary servitude." The national balance between free and slave states had been maintained since 1820 by admitting new states in free state/slave state pairs, but the Southerners feared that the admission of California would upset this balance.
I. Tensions Rise Between North and South C. The Crisis Deepens 1. The Fugitive Slave Act increased Northern anger 2. Outrage Over the Act - Stowe wrote “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
I. Tensions Rise Between North and South D. Violence Erupts 1. The Kansas-Nebraska Act – let the new states decide slavery for themselves 2. Led to “Bleeding Kansas” – violence between pro- and anti-slavery in Kansas 3. Violence in Congress – Also known as, “Bleeding Sumner” – Senator Preston Brooks beat Senator Charles Sumner with a cane
II. Slavery Dominates Politics A. Slavery and Political Division 1. Republican Party Forms – Whigs break up a. Anti-slavery, pro-North party b. nominated John C. Fremont (1856) 2. Election of 1856 - Democrats a. Pro-slavery, pro-South party b. nominated James Buchanan (1856) c. Know-Nothing Party nominated Fillmore but they had little strength d. Buchanan won, but Republicans showed they had power (in North) and slavery divided the nation
II. Slavery Dominates Politics B. The Breaking Point 1. The Dred Scott Case a. Dred Scott sued for his freedom after his owner died and he lost b. The Court’s Decision – Scott was property and had no rights plus Congress had no power to limit slavery c. Historical Impact – The MO Compromise was void plus no state could be a “free state” therefore the entire US was opened to slavery according to the Supreme Court
II. Slavery Dominates Politics C. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1. Lincoln – slavery wrong, stop expansion 2. Douglas – popular sovereignty (let each state decide) 3. Lincoln lost, but became a national figure
II. Slavery Dominates Politics D. John Brown’s raid 1. Brown captured a federal armory to start a slave rebellion 2. He was captured and hung 3. North praised him, South was angry
III. Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession A. The Election of 1860 1. The Split in the Democratic Party - Democrats broke up a. Northern Democrats – popular sovereignty b. Southern Democrats – protect slavery 1) They nominated two different candidates 2. Two Political Races a. Lincoln vs. Douglas in North 1) Republicans – opposed expanding slavery b. Breckinridge vs. Bell in South c. Lincoln won – more electoral votes in North due to larger population 1) did not want to abolish slavery 2) the South did not trust him
III. Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession B. Southern States Secede 1. The Confederate States of America a. Southern states seceded (withdrew) from the Union (just like they threatened if Lincoln won) b. They said states’ rights allowed them c. They joined voluntarily, they could leave d. Nominated Jefferson Davis president of the Confederacy 2. The Union’s Response a. The Union said they could not 3. The Failure of Compromise a. The Crittenden Compromise failed, which proposed slavery being protected south of the line proposed in the MO Compromise b. Slavery had pulled the nation apart 4. Lincoln’s Inauguration (1861) a. promised not to abolish slavery b. but, said he would not allow secession c. What would be done about the Union forts in South?