2Republican Party Forms *Whig party split over slavery issue!-Northern Whigs joined with slave opponents and formed the Republican Party.-gained support in the N.*1856 Presidental Election:Republicans: John C. FremontDemocrats: James Buchanan *wins*Fremont still won 11 Northern states showing how nation was sharply split on slavery.
3Democrat James Buchanan RepublicanJohn C. FremontDemocrat James BuchananWon election of 1856
4Case of Dred Scott *Slave taken into free states by his master -claimed he was now free and sued for freedom*Case: Dred Scott v. Sandford, reached Supreme Court**Ruling: Not a citizen, therefore cannot sue in U.S. courts and were property (voted 7-2)
5SOOOO…..What happened to Dred Scott? *The decision heightened tensions between the North and the South, causing outrage among abolitionists, slaves and their sympathizers.SOOOO…..What happened to Dred Scott?*Dred Scott, his wife and daughters were formally freed by his owner on May 26, 1857, less than three months after the Supreme Court decision.*Scott worked as a porter (carrier) in St. Louis for about 17 months before he died from tuberculosis in September 1858.
6Lincoln-Douglas Debates *Rep. believed Dem. wanted to make slavery legal in all states.Main target: Senator Stephen A. Douglas (Democrat from Illinois)*1858, Douglas ran for reelection to senate.*Rep. Abraham Lincoln ran against him.*Had a series of debates about the expansion of slavery.
8*Position??Lincoln:Argued that slavery should NOT be expanded.Douglas:Argued that voters in each territory should decide the slavery issue for themselves.Who won?? Douglas wonHowever!! The Lincoln-Douglas debates made Lincoln a national figure!!
9Harpers Ferry*Abolitionist John Brown hoped to inspire slaves to rebel.*October 16, 1859: Captured the weapons in the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia*Sent word to arm slaves, slaves did not join the fight*Brown was captured, tried, convicted, and executed.*Brown praised in North, South furious at this
12Presidential Election 1860 *Republican candidate – Abraham LincolnNorthern Democratic candidate – Stephen A. DouglasSouthern Democratic candidate – John BreckinridgeWhy two Democrats???*Democrats could not agree on what to say about slavery!Northern Democrats: Support popular sovereignty (let people vote)Southern Democrats: Defend slavery
13The Election of 1860*Lincoln and Breckinridge had most extreme views on slavery.Lincoln: Against expanding into the territoriesBreckinridge: Wanted federal government to protect slavery in any territory.*Nation tired of compromise!!!-Lincoln won the North.-Breckinridge won the South.
14Southern DemocratJohn BreckinridgeRepublicanAbraham Lincoln
15*North had more people…Lincoln won the election. *Lincoln said he would do nothing about slavery in the South.*White Southerners did not trust him.-Viewed his victory as a THREAT to slavery and their way of life!*Southerners warned: If Lincoln were elected, the Southern states would secede, or withdraw from the Union!Yikes!!
16Southern States Secede *Dec – South Carolina 1st state to secede*By Feb. 1861, six more-formed the Confederate States of America*Jefferson Davis President of Confederacy.Union Response???-Northerners said unconstitutional!Pres. Buchanan said states didn’t have the right to leave the Union: federal government, not states, was sovereign.
17Lincoln and the South *Assured South he would not abolish slavery *Spoke strongly against secession*Did not want to force the South to stay in the Union.*Several forts in South under Union control that needed to be resupplied.*Whole nation waited to see what would happen…..