Republican Party Forms *Whig party split over slavery issue! -Northern Whigs joined with slave opponents and formed the Republican Party. -gained support in the N. *1856 Presidental Election: Republicans: John C. Fremont Democrats: James Buchanan *wins *Fremont still won 11 Northern states showing how nation was sharply split on slavery.
Republican John C. Fremont Democrat James Buchanan Won election of 1856
Case of Dred Scott *Slave taken into free states by his master -claimed he was now free and sued for freedom *Case: Dred Scott v. Sandford, reached Supreme Court **Ruling: Not a citizen, therefore cannot sue in U.S. courts and were property (voted 7-2)
*The decision heightened tensions between the North and the South, causing outrage among abolitionists, slaves and their sympathizers. SOOOO…..What happened to Dred Scott? *Dred Scott, his wife and daughters were formally freed by his owner on May 26, 1857, less than three months after the Supreme Court decision. *Scott worked as a porter (carrier) in St. Louis for about 17 months before he died from tuberculosis in September 1858.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates *Rep. believed Dem. wanted to make slavery legal in all states. Main target: Senator Stephen A. Douglas (Democrat from Illinois) *1858, Douglas ran for reelection to senate. *Rep. Abraham Lincoln ran against him. *Had a series of debates about the expansion of slavery.
Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln
*Position?? Lincoln: Argued that slavery should NOT be expanded. Douglas: Argued that voters in each territory should decide the slavery issue for themselves. Who won?? Douglas won However!! The Lincoln-Douglas debates made Lincoln a national figure!!
Harpers Ferry *Abolitionist John Brown hoped to inspire slaves to rebel. *October 16, 1859: Captured the weapons in the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia *Sent word to arm slaves, slaves did not join the fight *Brown was captured, tried, convicted, and executed. *Brown praised in North, South furious at this
Presidential Election 1860 *Republican candidate – Abraham Lincoln Northern Democratic candidate – Stephen A. Douglas Southern Democratic candidate – John Breckinridge Why two Democrats??? *Democrats could not agree on what to say about slavery! Northern Democrats: Support popular sovereignty (let people vote) Southern Democrats: Defend slavery
The Election of 1860 *Lincoln and Breckinridge had most extreme views on slavery. Lincoln: Against expanding into the territories Breckinridge: Wanted federal government to protect slavery in any territory. *Nation tired of compromise!!! -Lincoln won the North. -Breckinridge won the South.
Republican Abraham Lincoln Southern Democrat John Breckinridge
*North had more people…Lincoln won the election. *Lincoln said he would do nothing about slavery in the South. *White Southerners did not trust him. -Viewed his victory as a THREAT to slavery and their way of life! *Southerners warned: If Lincoln were elected, the Southern states would secede, or withdraw from the Union! Yikes!!
Southern States Secede *Dec. 1860 – South Carolina 1 st state to secede *By Feb. 1861, six more -formed the Confederate States of America *Jefferson Davis President of Confederacy. Union Response??? -Northerners said unconstitutional! Pres. Buchanan said states didn’t have the right to leave the Union: federal government, not states, was sovereign.
Lincoln and the South *Assured South he would not abolish slavery *Spoke strongly against secession *Did not want to force the South to stay in the Union. *Several forts in South under Union control that needed to be resupplied. *Whole nation waited to see what would happen…..