Presentation on theme: "The Road to War United States Civil War SECTIONALISM NORTH Industrial Paid labor for workers SOUTH Agricultural Free labor (slaves) did the work Caused."— Presentation transcript:
SECTIONALISM NORTH Industrial Paid labor for workers SOUTH Agricultural Free labor (slaves) did the work Caused by economical differences between the two regions
Composition of U.S. Before 1860 Free Slave Territories
Right to be free Greatest problem of slavery – violation of every human being's unalienable right to be free
Compromise of 1820 Also known as the Missouri Compromise of 1820 Proposed by Henry Clay Why was it needed? Keep balance of slave & free states equal in the Senate What did it do? Missouri enters as a slave state Maine enters as a free state Southern boundary of Missouri becomes dividing line between slave/free
The Issue of States’ Rights Southerners – all lands acquired from Mexico open to slave holders Northerners – demanded all new regions be closed to slavery
Then…in California January 1848 – gold discovered Congress had to make a decision quickly WHY ??
California California wanted to join Union as free state – BUT – was split in half by Missouri Compromise Line (oops!!!!) So…***Henry Clay – you’re up!!! Because…
Compromise of 1850 Proposed by Henry Clay Why was it needed? California wanted to join as a free state Was split in half by Missouri Compromise Line What did it do? CA enters as a free state Washington, DC bans slave trading but not slavery Strong Fugitive Slave Laws are passed
CALMING or NOT ??? For 3 years, the compromise settled most differences but… The new Fugitive Slave Law deeply offended Northerners
Northerners continued to help fugitives escape, and made the Underground Railroad more efficient and more daring than it had been before.
Kansas-Nebraska Problem! Slave-holders in Missouri objected to Kansas becoming a free territory because they would have 3 free-soil neighbors (Illinois, Iowa and Kansas) They feared their state would be forced to become a free state as well
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas Why was it needed? Kansas and Nebraska territories use popular sovereignty to decide if free or slave What did it do? Bleeding Kansas – slave holders vs free soilers got into armed conflicts
Bleeding Kansas Both southern slave holders and antislavery families move in – armed conflict results in lots of blood shed. Kansas became known as “Bleeding Kansas.”
Slave or Freed Man ?? Dred Scott Missouri slave Master moved to Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory (where slavery banned) Master returned to Missouri Scott sued for freedom
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Decided by Chief Justice Roger Taney What was the argument? “Should Dred Scott be free or not?” What was the decision? Slaves were property, not citizens – not automatically free on free land
Effects of Dred Scott Decision angered North Southern --great victory--it gave “judicial voice” to their justification of slavery
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 ***Debates between Illinois congressional candidates: Stephen A. Douglas vs. Lincoln (new Republican Party) Douglas *** Douglas won the election ***Lincoln gained national attention for his views on slavery
Abraham Lincoln regarded slavery as “a Necessary EVIL” Speech in Peoria, Illinois, in 1858—declared:-- “all national legislation should be framed on the principle that slavery was to be restricted. It should NOT spread into the new western territories!”
Tensions Grow!!!! ***Southerners are feeling threatened !! Then… John Brown Was he Saint or Satan?
John Brown’s Raid (1860) Led by John Brown (white abolitionist) What was the purpose? Raided federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA in hopes of starting rebellion against slave owners What were the effects? Brown was defeated and hanged; hated by Northerners and Southerners
1860 Presidential Election Republican – Abraham Lincoln Northern Democrat – Stephen A. Douglas Southern Democrat – John Breckenridge Constitutional Union Democrat – John Bell
Presidential Election of 1860 Who won? Abraham Lincoln (Republican) What happened? South Carolina seceded
Why Secession? The election of Abe Lincoln as the 1 st Republican President increased the South’s fear that Lincoln would abolish slavery in South
South Carolina secedes Lincoln’s election led to South Carolina’s decision was to be the 1 st southern state to secede from the Union Lincoln’s election caused the start of the CIVIL WAR
Secession of South Carolina Justification States’ rights Reaction Lincoln refuses to recognize secession
Southern justification for slavery… States’ Rights superseded federal powers, a state could secede from the Union if they were not allowed to nullify a federal law! The belief that since the constitution reserved certain powers for the states which superseded federal powers, a state could secede from the Union if they were not allowed to nullify a federal law!
Secession: Legally Void Abraham Lincoln sworn in. In his inaugural address, he refused to recognize the secession, considering it "legally void."
Jefferson Davis says… “ As a necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to the remedy of separation, and henceforth our energies must be directed to the conduct of our own affairs…If this be denied to us…we will be forced to appeal to arms!
Fort Sumter, South Carolina 1 st shots of Civil War fired here
WAR! The battle began in April of 1861 when the Confederate Army took over Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.
Fort Sumter, South Carolina What happened? South wanted to test Lincoln’s vow to hold on to federal property Consequences Civil War begins