2France Attempts Colonization King Louis XIV took interest in Overseas ColoniesEstablished Quebec as “New France”Also Found territory in Ohio River ValleyMajor Area of Louisiana, founded in 1682 to keep Span from expanding
3The French and Indian War Begins tension between Colonist and British that will eventually lead to warWar was fought between Britain and French as well as their allies the IndiansCaused by National Rivalry’s to expand and competition for territoryVery fighting heavily over Ohio River Valley land, as it was very fertileSpark of the War was in 1754 when the Governor of Virginia sent George Washington into the Ohio Valley starting the first Battle with the French
4French and Indian War Colonists were unified in the War effort. Ben Franklin helped do this with his Famous “Join or Die” cartoon
5French and Indian WarThe Colonial Army was not successful at first as they lost many of the first battlesThe Turning Point of the War is when William Pitt took control of the Army lead the Colonial Army and their attack on Quebec. This was known as the Fall of Quebec where the French where defeated
6Conditions of the Treaty France would give it claims in Canada, and all lands east of the MississippiSpain ( French Ally) ceded Florida to the BritishLed to bigger War in Europe that Spread to Colonies around the globeTreaty of Paris of 1763Conditions of the Treaty
7Effects of the French and Indian War Great Britain was established as a super powerFrench lost most of its power in North America (Most ended up in still French owned Louisiana)Major result of this war though, was the Colonist gained confidence by winning the War
8The Rise of TensionColonist felt British did not help enough during the War effortGreat Britain as well now had a lot of new land to controlSigned the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonist resented this, and ignored it to a great deal.This tried to keep Colonist in one areaMany colonist also did not like the enormous debt that Great Britain gained over the war, and now with the Proclamation that debt rose to keep an army in North America to govern the colonistThis Forced the British to look for ways to raise money.
9Change in British policy British embraced the Mercantilism Theory of Exported more out than importing in, and amassing large amounts of moneyNavigation Laws- Restricted commerce from the colonies to England only. Lead to smuggling (were enforced very inconsistent at first, but led to smuggling)Imperial Reorganization of Britain had a huge debt, and used Americans to pay 1/3 of the debtGeorge Grenville- Prime Minister of Great Britain at the time. Enforced harshly the Navigation Laws. Also passed other tough taxes against the colonistSalutary Neglect- Policy ended, and now Britain had a hands on approach with colonist
10British Acts against the Colonies Sugar Act- First act against the colonist used to raise money. Taxed foreign sugarQuartering Act- Law passed by Britain to force colonist to house and feed British SoldiersStamp Act- imposed tax on Stamps to raise money for the new military
11Reaction to the TaxesBritishColonistFelt they were fair and that they were simply asking colonist to pay their part of the dealViolence and ProtestBeing unfairly taxed for an unnecessary Army
13“No Taxation without Representation” Colonist ArgumentBritish ArgumentAmericans denied the right to be tax since no American was represented in Congress“Virtual Representation”- Every Parliament member represented every British subject including the colonist
14Stamp Act CongressIn Colonist met in NYC to discuss Stamp Act, and send protest to the King known as the STAMP ACT CONGRESSShowed signs of Colonist unitySons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty- Sprang up throughout the colonies to support and enforce boycotts British SuppliesLeader was Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, etc…Declaratory Act- Act stated that Parliament had the Authority to impose laws on the coloniesTownsend Act- Taxes imported goods to pay Royal Governors
15British Troops in America A lot of smuggling of goods followed which forced Britain to put troops in America, especially BostonBoston Massacre- on the evening of March 5, 1770 about 60 townspeople in Boston were harassing British Redcoats. One got hit in the head, the other hit by a club. They fired killing 5 citizensRedcoats got off pretty easy, only 2 of the 8 were prosecuted. John Adams was actually their lawyerThe Sons of Liberty portrayed the event as a “Massacre”Committees of Correspondence- set up in order to spread the propaganda and keep rebelling mindset. Every colony eventually has one.
16The Boston Tea PartyTea Act- tax was placed on tea that was very profitable for Great BritainCrispus Attucks- African American leader of the mob at the Boston MassacreBoston Tea Party- Colonist boycotted on December 16, 1773 as the Sons as Liberty (disguised as Indians) opened 342 chest of Tea and dumped it into the Boston HarborIntolerable Acts- Repressive set of Acts to punish coloniesBoston Port Act- closed port of BostonMassachusetts Gov’t Act- evoked charter of Mass, and more British friendly Governor came inQuebec Act- shot at the Bostonians, gave the French Canada back and extended boundaries to Ohio River, also took away port of MassachusettsNew Quartering Act- Stricter Quartering Law
17Effects of the Intolerable Acts Militias were formed1st Continental Congress was calledColonist felt threatenedUnited the Colonists in outrage
181st Continental Congress In Philadelphia. Convention lasting from September 5th to October 26th in 1774.- Did not want Independence. Wanted to fix problems. Be involved in Parliament or Pay not Taxes- Sent a list of Grievances and Declaration of Rights which were ignored by Parliament- Decided to tell each Colony to prepare for War
19“Shot Heard Round the World” April of 1775 British Commander in Boston sent Troops to Concord to seize supplies and capture Sam Adams and John Hancock. Colonist meet the troops thanks to Paul Revere at Lexington and First Shots were fired
20Paul RevereLeader of Massachusetts resistance to the British. Devised warning system to warn about British Movement“The British are coming the British are Coming” Short Paul Revere Video
212nd Continental Congress Met in Philadelphia on May 10, 17753 Delegates added were Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John HancockActions were different. Wanted War. Sent one last list of grievances and ask for the King to restore Peace. Was ignored by the King
222nd Continental Congress King George issued the Prohibitory Act declaring all colonies in rebellion and no longer under his protectionUnited all the colonies for the war effort and encouraged colonies to set up as statesEstablished Articles of Confederation as ruling bodyRaised Army and NavyAppointed George Washington as Commander and Chief
23Early stages of WarIn 1st year, war was one of consistency as Colonist maintained their loyalty while shooting at Kings men. In May of 1775 a group led by Benedict Arnold won a battle again the BritishBunker Hill- June 1775, colonist seized Bunker HillEffects of the Battle- King George gave up hope for reconciliationBritish did eventually win the Battle of Bunker Hill but realized they were in for a fight with the colonistColonist moral rose as they realized they could win the war
24The two sides of war The Colonist Were fighting for 4 main reasons: 1) Protection from taxation without representation2) The right to a trial by jury or peers3) The protection of searches without warrant4) Protection from having troops quarteredBritish strengths during the WarPeople 7.5 million, Great Military, Great WealthBritish Weaknesses during the WarBusy in Civil War in Ireland, France as Enemy, No Drive to Win, Distance,
25Two Sides of War American Strengths Leadership (George Washington), French Aid, Home Court Advantage, Drive to WinAmerican WeaknessesLack of Unity- Not all were behind the fight, America did not have much money at this time, Lack of Military training
26Leaders of the SidesAmericaBritishGeorge Washington- The Perfect LeaderBenjamin Franklin- used power of the PressSamuel Adams- “The Penman of the Revolution”John Adams- Great lawyer, very persuasiveJohn Hancock- 1st Signer of the Declaration of IndependencePatrick Henry- “Give me Liberty or Give me Death”Abigail Adams- wife of John Adams who pushed for Women’s RightsKing George III- King of England who was a good man, but terrible ruler. Allowed America to eventually break freeBenedict Arnold- Turned on America, and ran with the British
27American Groups during the War Patriots- Supported Rebellion and were called “Whigs”. Usually younger, known as Minute Men, members of the Continental Army which consisted of 10,000 men led by WashingtonLoyalist- those who supported the King. Were called “Tories”. Often divided FamiliesNeither Group- Did not care either way
28Thinkers behind Independence Thomas Paine- Wrote Common Sense which urged colonials to stop pretending loyalty, and just fight. Called King George III “the Royal Brute of Britain”. Paine Argued for “Republicanism”
29Thinkers behind Independence Thomas Jefferson- Basically wrote the Declaration, a list of grievances against the King. Wanted the world to understand the Colonies struggleHe was influenced by the Enlightenment movement move ment and writer John Locke who believed in self government and natural rights
30The Declaration of Indelpendence The Preamble focused on the Rights of the PeopleBelieved people had Natural Right “Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness”. Believed only God could take these rights awayBelieved in a Government by the PeopleThen Gave a reason for the colonist proclaiming IndependenceCongress approved it on July 2, 1776, finally fully approved on July 4, 1776Laid the basis for a Social Contract, basis for Natural Rights, and gained support of uncommitted Americans. Also Gained Foreign Support (The French)
31The Revolutionary WarThe British dominated early battles in the Middle Colonies. Many Americans were ready to give up, including the Continental Congress fleeing PhiladelphiaWashington basically saved the Americans with a surprise Christmas attack on the British. Pretty much turned the warThe Battle of Saratoga- The turning point of the War. The French joined the Americans side and helped propel the Americans to Victory.Became a global war with Spain and Holland helping as well. Without the help of these other countries, America would have struggled to win.
32Life During the WarAfrican Americans- About 5,000 fought for the Colonist, some were barred from fighting in South as Plantation owners feared revoltNative Americans- Most supported the British thinking it would end American ExpansionEconomic problems were huge during the war as Inflation continued to soar.
33The Southern Campaign of the War Leaders were Lord Cornwallis for Britain, and Marquis de Lafayette for the ColonistSame kind of theme were Britain dominated early, but the South behind General Nathanial Greene pushed back and eventually succeededBattle of Yorktown- Last desive battle of the war were Cornwallis fell into a trap, thinking he had British help and surrendered his troops to the Colonist. Pretty much ended the War
34Treaty of Paris 1783Signed on September 3, US gained Independence, Land stretched West to the Mississippi, Great Lakes on the North, and Spanish Florida in SouthBritain finally withdrew their Troops