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Unit II American Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit II American Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit II American Revolution

2 France Attempts Colonization
King Louis XIV took interest in Overseas Colonies Established Quebec as “New France” Also Found territory in Ohio River Valley Major Area of Louisiana, founded in 1682 to keep Span from expanding

3 The French and Indian War
Begins tension between Colonist and British that will eventually lead to war War was fought between Britain and French as well as their allies the Indians Caused by National Rivalry’s to expand and competition for territory Very fighting heavily over Ohio River Valley land, as it was very fertile Spark of the War was in 1754 when the Governor of Virginia sent George Washington into the Ohio Valley starting the first Battle with the French

4 French and Indian War Colonists were unified in the War effort.
Ben Franklin helped do this with his Famous “Join or Die” cartoon

5 French and Indian War The Colonial Army was not successful at first as they lost many of the first battles The Turning Point of the War is when William Pitt took control of the Army lead the Colonial Army and their attack on Quebec. This was known as the Fall of Quebec where the French where defeated

6 Conditions of the Treaty
France would give it claims in Canada, and all lands east of the Mississippi Spain ( French Ally) ceded Florida to the British Led to bigger War in Europe that Spread to Colonies around the globe Treaty of Paris of 1763 Conditions of the Treaty

7 Effects of the French and Indian War
Great Britain was established as a super power French lost most of its power in North America (Most ended up in still French owned Louisiana) Major result of this war though, was the Colonist gained confidence by winning the War

8 The Rise of Tension Colonist felt British did not help enough during the War effort Great Britain as well now had a lot of new land to control Signed the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonist resented this, and ignored it to a great deal. This tried to keep Colonist in one area Many colonist also did not like the enormous debt that Great Britain gained over the war, and now with the Proclamation that debt rose to keep an army in North America to govern the colonist This Forced the British to look for ways to raise money.

9 Change in British policy
British embraced the Mercantilism Theory of Exported more out than importing in, and amassing large amounts of money Navigation Laws- Restricted commerce from the colonies to England only. Lead to smuggling (were enforced very inconsistent at first, but led to smuggling) Imperial Reorganization of Britain had a huge debt, and used Americans to pay 1/3 of the debt George Grenville- Prime Minister of Great Britain at the time. Enforced harshly the Navigation Laws. Also passed other tough taxes against the colonist Salutary Neglect- Policy ended, and now Britain had a hands on approach with colonist

10 British Acts against the Colonies
Sugar Act- First act against the colonist used to raise money. Taxed foreign sugar Quartering Act- Law passed by Britain to force colonist to house and feed British Soldiers Stamp Act- imposed tax on Stamps to raise money for the new military

11 Reaction to the Taxes British Colonist Felt they were fair and that they were simply asking colonist to pay their part of the deal Violence and Protest Being unfairly taxed for an unnecessary Army


13 “No Taxation without Representation”
Colonist Argument British Argument Americans denied the right to be tax since no American was represented in Congress “Virtual Representation”- Every Parliament member represented every British subject including the colonist

14 Stamp Act Congress In Colonist met in NYC to discuss Stamp Act, and send protest to the King known as the STAMP ACT CONGRESS Showed signs of Colonist unity Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty- Sprang up throughout the colonies to support and enforce boycotts British Supplies Leader was Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, etc… Declaratory Act- Act stated that Parliament had the Authority to impose laws on the colonies Townsend Act- Taxes imported goods to pay Royal Governors

15 British Troops in America
A lot of smuggling of goods followed which forced Britain to put troops in America, especially Boston Boston Massacre- on the evening of March 5, 1770 about 60 townspeople in Boston were harassing British Redcoats. One got hit in the head, the other hit by a club. They fired killing 5 citizens Redcoats got off pretty easy, only 2 of the 8 were prosecuted. John Adams was actually their lawyer The Sons of Liberty portrayed the event as a “Massacre” Committees of Correspondence- set up in order to spread the propaganda and keep rebelling mindset. Every colony eventually has one.

16 The Boston Tea Party Tea Act- tax was placed on tea that was very profitable for Great Britain Crispus Attucks- African American leader of the mob at the Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party- Colonist boycotted on December 16, 1773 as the Sons as Liberty (disguised as Indians) opened 342 chest of Tea and dumped it into the Boston Harbor Intolerable Acts- Repressive set of Acts to punish colonies Boston Port Act- closed port of Boston Massachusetts Gov’t Act- evoked charter of Mass, and more British friendly Governor came in Quebec Act- shot at the Bostonians, gave the French Canada back and extended boundaries to Ohio River, also took away port of Massachusetts New Quartering Act- Stricter Quartering Law

17 Effects of the Intolerable Acts
Militias were formed 1st Continental Congress was called Colonist felt threatened United the Colonists in outrage

18 1st Continental Congress
In Philadelphia. Convention lasting from September 5th to October 26th in 1774. - Did not want Independence. Wanted to fix problems. Be involved in Parliament or Pay not Taxes - Sent a list of Grievances and Declaration of Rights which were ignored by Parliament - Decided to tell each Colony to prepare for War

19 “Shot Heard Round the World”
April of 1775 British Commander in Boston sent Troops to Concord to seize supplies and capture Sam Adams and John Hancock. Colonist meet the troops thanks to Paul Revere at Lexington and First Shots were fired

20 Paul Revere Leader of Massachusetts resistance to the British. Devised warning system to warn about British Movement “The British are coming the British are Coming” Short Paul Revere Video

21 2nd Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775 3 Delegates added were Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock Actions were different. Wanted War. Sent one last list of grievances and ask for the King to restore Peace. Was ignored by the King

22 2nd Continental Congress
King George issued the Prohibitory Act declaring all colonies in rebellion and no longer under his protection United all the colonies for the war effort and encouraged colonies to set up as states Established Articles of Confederation as ruling body Raised Army and Navy Appointed George Washington as Commander and Chief

23 Early stages of War In 1st year, war was one of consistency as Colonist maintained their loyalty while shooting at Kings men. In May of 1775 a group led by Benedict Arnold won a battle again the British Bunker Hill- June 1775, colonist seized Bunker Hill Effects of the Battle- King George gave up hope for reconciliation British did eventually win the Battle of Bunker Hill but realized they were in for a fight with the colonist Colonist moral rose as they realized they could win the war

24 The two sides of war The Colonist Were fighting for 4 main reasons:
1) Protection from taxation without representation 2) The right to a trial by jury or peers 3) The protection of searches without warrant 4) Protection from having troops quartered British strengths during the War People 7.5 million, Great Military, Great Wealth British Weaknesses during the War Busy in Civil War in Ireland, France as Enemy, No Drive to Win, Distance,

25 Two Sides of War American Strengths
Leadership (George Washington), French Aid, Home Court Advantage, Drive to Win American Weaknesses Lack of Unity- Not all were behind the fight, America did not have much money at this time, Lack of Military training

26 Leaders of the Sides America British George Washington- The Perfect Leader Benjamin Franklin- used power of the Press Samuel Adams- “The Penman of the Revolution” John Adams- Great lawyer, very persuasive John Hancock- 1st Signer of the Declaration of Independence Patrick Henry- “Give me Liberty or Give me Death” Abigail Adams- wife of John Adams who pushed for Women’s Rights King George III- King of England who was a good man, but terrible ruler. Allowed America to eventually break free Benedict Arnold- Turned on America, and ran with the British

27 American Groups during the War
Patriots- Supported Rebellion and were called “Whigs”. Usually younger, known as Minute Men, members of the Continental Army which consisted of 10,000 men led by Washington Loyalist- those who supported the King. Were called “Tories”. Often divided Families Neither Group- Did not care either way

28 Thinkers behind Independence
Thomas Paine- Wrote Common Sense which urged colonials to stop pretending loyalty, and just fight. Called King George III “the Royal Brute of Britain”. Paine Argued for “Republicanism”

29 Thinkers behind Independence
Thomas Jefferson- Basically wrote the Declaration, a list of grievances against the King. Wanted the world to understand the Colonies struggle He was influenced by the Enlightenment movement move ment and writer John Locke who believed in self government and natural rights

30 The Declaration of Indelpendence
The Preamble focused on the Rights of the People Believed people had Natural Right “Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness”. Believed only God could take these rights away Believed in a Government by the People Then Gave a reason for the colonist proclaiming Independence Congress approved it on July 2, 1776, finally fully approved on July 4, 1776 Laid the basis for a Social Contract, basis for Natural Rights, and gained support of uncommitted Americans. Also Gained Foreign Support (The French)

31 The Revolutionary War The British dominated early battles in the Middle Colonies. Many Americans were ready to give up, including the Continental Congress fleeing Philadelphia Washington basically saved the Americans with a surprise Christmas attack on the British. Pretty much turned the war The Battle of Saratoga- The turning point of the War. The French joined the Americans side and helped propel the Americans to Victory. Became a global war with Spain and Holland helping as well. Without the help of these other countries, America would have struggled to win.

32 Life During the War African Americans- About 5,000 fought for the Colonist, some were barred from fighting in South as Plantation owners feared revolt Native Americans- Most supported the British thinking it would end American Expansion Economic problems were huge during the war as Inflation continued to soar.

33 The Southern Campaign of the War
Leaders were Lord Cornwallis for Britain, and Marquis de Lafayette for the Colonist Same kind of theme were Britain dominated early, but the South behind General Nathanial Greene pushed back and eventually succeeded Battle of Yorktown- Last desive battle of the war were Cornwallis fell into a trap, thinking he had British help and surrendered his troops to the Colonist. Pretty much ended the War

34 Treaty of Paris 1783 Signed on September 3, US gained Independence, Land stretched West to the Mississippi, Great Lakes on the North, and Spanish Florida in South Britain finally withdrew their Troops

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