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1 The Preamble!!! Congress!!! Oops!!!

2 Articles of Confederation to U.S. Constitution
I. The Movement for More Effective Government A. After Shay’s Rebellion and other signs of a weak government the Founders saw a need for a stronger central government. 1. A successful (1785) meeting at Mount Vernon will lead to a Annapolis convention to discuss the need for a constitutional convention to amend the Articles of Confederation. George Washington to James Madison “We are either a united people or we are not. If the former, let us act as a nation. If we are not, let us no longer act as a farce by pretending to it.” II. The Constitutional Convention A. Founding Fathers men invited; 55 show up; Average age—42; Jefferson (Paris) and John Adams (envoy to England/Holland) not present. 2. Many new faces from Revolutionary time Sam Adams, Patrick Henry and John Hancock were opposed to strong Federal government. 3. Washington (age-55) elected Constitutional Convention President. 4. James Madison (Father of the Constitution) keeps a secret diary of proceedings.

3 The Founding Fathers

4 Issues that divided the Nation’s leaders at the Constitutional Convention
The power of the federal government. Would the states or the federal government have the most power? Representation in Congress (How many members on Congress would each state get? – small states wanted equal representation, large states wanted it to be determined by population of the states How much power to exectuive? Slavery – How would slaves be counted? Would the slave trade continue?

5 II. The Constitutional Convention
B. Virginia Plan (Edmund Randolph) 1. Created three branches of National government. 2. Created a bicameral Congress. 3. Representation based on population (favored large states) 4. Desired a strong national gov’t. C. New Jersey Plan (William Patterson) 1. Agreed w/ three branches. 2. Wanted a unicameral Congress. 3. Wanted equal representation from each state: one state, one vote (this favors small states). 4. Wanted to maintain states’ sovereignty. D. The Connecticut (Great) Compromise 1. Created a bicameral Congress a. Upper house (Senate) would have equal representation (two Senators from each state), elected by Lower House legislators b. Lower house (House of Representatives) representation based on population. E. Other Compromises: 1. Three-Fifths Compromise a. Southern states wanted more representation (AA—1/3 population), but the South did not want to pay taxes for their slaves. b. A slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person? Why?

6 E. Other Compromises: 2. Commerce and Slave-Trade Compromise a. Southern states agreed to give Congress control over foreign and interstate commerce. b. Congress could not ban the slave trade until 1808. c. Congress could permit tariffs on imports—not on exports. d. Congress could (enumerated powers borrow money, declare war, maintaining military forces, establish postal services, and make laws necessary to carry out these delegated powers. F. The Executive Branch 1. Single executive - president. 2. Term of four years, but might be reelected. 3. Founding Fathers distrusted Congress and the people to elect the president : created the electoral college. a. Each state would have equal number of electors to their state’s senators and representatives. b. Each elector was to vote for two candidates for the presidency— candidate winning the most votes becomes president and the next candidate would be vice-president (12th Amendment would change this).

7 F. The Executive Branch 4. President can: a. execute laws passed by Congress (executive branch). b. Can call Congress into session and might veto acts of Congress (can be overridden by 2/3 of Congress). c. Make treaties w/ “advice and consent” of 2/3 of Senators. d. President is commander-in-chief. e. Given extensive power of appointing officials. G. The Judiciary Branch 1. Congress was to establish a Supreme Court (6 members then increased to 9). 2. Jurisdiction of federal courts was defined. 3. Doctrine of Judicial Review was not stated or denied (established in Marbury v. Madison) H. Amending process 1. Proposed: 2/3 vote by both houses of Congress or by vote of two thirds of state legislatures 2. Ratified by: ¾ of the state legislatures or by special conventions in the states. I. Ratification: 1. Anti-Federalists were opposed to ratification of new constitution.

8 I. Ratification—9 of 13 states need to ratify:
1. Anti-Federalists (back country farmers, debtors, sectionalists—Sam Adams and Patrick Henry) were opposed to ratification of new constitution. a. Felt it was a threat to states rights. b. Stressed the lack of Bill of Rights. c. Fear of a great centralized national power. d. Fear of national army. e. Fear of taxing power of national gov’t (good to have this fear). f. Fear of executive authority. g. Fear of aristocracy built into Senate (6 year term). 2. The Federalists favored ratification. a. By July 1788, nine states had ratified the Constitution, but New York and Virginia hadn’t (northern and southern economic centers). b. Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison will write articles in support of adoption of the constitution (The Federalist Papers). c. Virginia ratifies and New York follows. North Carolina waits for the Bill of Rights proposed and Rhode Island, threatened w/ economic boycott by US Congress ratifies in 1790 (all 13 states ratify). 3. Constitution ratified in 1789—Bill of Rights passed in 1791.

9 Articles of Confederation v. U.S. Constitution
Name Legislature Members of Congress Voting in Congress Terms in Congress Term limit for legislative office Congressional pay Chair of legislature Executive National Judiciary The United States of America Unicameral Between two and seven members per state. One vote per state. One year No more than three out of every six years Paid by states President of Congress None Maritime judiciary established Not mentioned except in Preamble Bicameral Two Senators per state; Rep. apportioned by population. One vote per Representative or Senator Two years for Reps., six for Senators Paid by federal government Speaker of the House of Reps, Vice President is President of Senate. President Federal judiciary established, including Supreme Court

10 Articles of Confederation v. U.S. Constitution
Adjudicator between states--- New States Amendment Power to coin money Taxes Ratification Congress Admitted upon agreement of nine states. When agreed upon by all states United States and the States Apportioned by Congress, collected by the states. Unanimous consent required. Supreme Court Admitted upon agreement of Congress When agreed upon by ¾ of all states. United States only. Laid and collected by Congress. Consent of nine states required.

11 III. The Federalist Period – Washington’s Presidency
A. 1st Capital was in New York and where ballots of the 1st presidential electors were counted. a. George Washington was unanimously elected President and John Adams Vice President. b. In 1790 capital was moved to Philadelphia and in 1800 Washington. B. Madison will push Congress to amend the Constitution. a. Twelve amendments are submitted to the states; ten were ratified. C. Congress passed a tariff act only on light duties. D. Judiciary Act of 1789 created Supreme Court w/ a Chief Justice and five associates. E. Congress creates three executive departments in 1789—State, War, and Treasury and offices of attorney-general and postmaster-general. 1. Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State; Alexander Hamilton – Secretary of the Treasury; Henry Knox – Secretary of War (president’s cabinet—not recognized until mid-1800s). F. Hamilton’s Financial Program 1. Program for Managing Debt a. Three kinds of debt after Rev: (1) federal debt owed foreigners, (2) federal domestic debt owed Americans, (3) state debts. b. Hamilton said that we would pay for the debt at par (face value) for both foreign and domestic. c. Federal gov’t assumed state debts. Hamilton not afraid of debt—he would tax to make it up.

12 G. The Bank of the United States and the National Currency (1791)
1. Provided a sound, uniform paper currency. 2. Provided fiscal services to gov’t of short-term lending (pay for taxes of course). 3. The creation the national bank gave Congress implied powers—or loose interpretation of the Constitution. H. Whiskey Rebellion 1794 1. Hamilton broke a promise of no new taxes and placed a tax on distilled liquors. (didn’t affect Westerners—most traded alcohol for goods and services). 2. In Western Pennsylvania there were riots and violence, but no organized insurrection. Washington feared domestic insurrection so he mobilized a federal military and stopped any rebellion. 3. At the same time he will send General Anthony Wayne to put down Native American rebellions (Treaty of Greenville 1795 signed w/ twelve Indian nations—received large amount of territory which is present day Ohio, Indiana and land which will become cities of Detroit and Chicago. I. Origins of the Political Parties 1. Federalists – Headed by Hamilton believed in a commercial nation led by the well-to-do.

13 b. Supported British over French (even after French Revolution).
1. Federalists – Headed by Hamilton believed in a commercial nation led by the well-to-do. a. Party represented wealthy merchants, planters, commercial farmers. In the South commercial men and tidewater planters supported it. Federal Gov’t should advance business and favored broad interpretation of constitution. b. Supported British over French (even after French Revolution). 2. The Republicans – Headed by Jefferson (organized by Madison) wished to see the central government exercising only restricted powers. Jefferson believed: --Wise and frugal gov’t that will restrain men from injuring each other, but leave them free to pursue industry and improvement. --Government as a judicial branch (a referee). -- Believes in decentralization. --”Don’t take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned.” 3. Both sides thought political parties were deplorable and it will not be until 1830s that a coordinated role of parties in the federal government will be recognized. J. Creation of New States and Native American Relations 1. Vermont is first state (1791) separating from New York. 2. Kentucky 2nd (1792) separating from Virginia. 3. Tennessee 3rd (1796) separating from North Carolina. 4. These new states will create Native American problems and attacks.

14 J. Creation of New States and Native American Relations
4. These new states will create Native American problems and attacks. a. Battle of Fallen Timbers will crush Native Americans and Treaty of Greenville signed (1795). H. Problems in Diplomacy 1. Britain and French begin fighting each other in Jefferson in favor of French—Hamilton in favor of British. 2. French send Citizen Edmund Genet (Minister from France) to see if U.S. would adhere to Treaty of Alliance of When Genet arrives he does not come to the capital and begins to drum up support—big mistake! 3. Jefferson will be so angered that he, along with the rest of the cabinet, voted for his recall in August. Washington will claim US neutrality!!! I. The Jay and Pinckney Treaties 1. Jay Treaty – states: (1) The British would pay for damages to Americans ships seized; (2) The British agreed to withdraw from the Northwest posts. 2. Pinckney Treaty – Thomas Pinckney will take advantage of Spain’s fear that the U.S. was making treaty w/ Britain by having Spain: (1) agree to accept the 31st parallel as the southern boundary of the U.S., thus conceding the Yazoo strip; (2) They conceded the right of navigation of the Mississippi along with the right of deposit at New Orleans for three years; (4) They promised to stop the Native Americans in Florida from raiding into white territory.

15 J. Washington’s Farewell Address:
1. “I have already intimated to you the danger of Parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on Geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, & warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the Spirit of Party, generally . (warning against political parties). 2. If in the opinion of the People, the distribution or modification of the Constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit which the use can at any time yield. (warning against Courts usurping power). 3. So likewise, a passionate attachment of one Nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favourite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest, in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels & Wars of the latter, without adequate inducement or justification. (warning against treaties with other nations).

16 IV. The Federalist Period – Adam’s Presidency
A. Huge!!! Washington refuses a third term—sets principle until 1940s. B. Election of 1796 1. Adams and Thomas Pinckney will run for the Federalist party and Jefferson and Aaron Burr will run for the Democratic-Republicans. 2. Adams barely won in the electoral college with 71 votes to According to the constitution Jefferson then became the Vice- President (see a problem?—this will be changed w/ 12th Amendment). C. XYZ Affair (1797) 1. After Jay’s Treaty, the French will resent the favorable treatment given to Britain. 2. With Adams (Federalist) victory in 1796, the French will order their naval commanders to enforce restrictions like those of Britain. 3. Adams will send Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall to Paris in 1797 to negotiate for damage payments. 4. The Directory had come to power in France, and sent Minister Talleyrand to negotiate. Talleyrand will demand bribes from the Americans (they refuse). a. The reports of American reception hit the papers in the U.S. and the French agents (asking for bribes) were referred to as X, Y, and Z. 5. The U.S. will have an undeclared war (Quazi War) with France lasting two years (lost 80 vessels). Napoleon Bonaparte comes to power and sees the need for peace. Treaty w/ France is made in 1800— paying damage claims and stated, “neutral ships make neutral goods”

17 D. The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
IV. The Federalist Period – Adam’s Presidency D. The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) 1. Federalists passed laws meant to hit recent French, Irish, and other liberal immigrants who were Republicans. The Alien Acts did two things: a. Increased naturalization from five to fourteen years. b. The president was empowered to order dangerous aliens out of the country. 2. The Sedition Acts did: a. Forbid conspiracies against the laws and criticism of the laws— including actions and statements of president, cabinet, and Congress. b. These Acts ironically caused an increase in Republican newspapers. E. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)—Response to Acts (1798) 1. Madison writing for the Virginia assembly, declared the acts unconstitutional and claimed the the states could “interpose” themselves between the federal gov’t and the citizen. 2. Jefferson said the acts were “void and of no force”. Jefferson claimed that the states had the right to define the Constitution and nullify acts deemed to violate it. 3. The resolutions will lead to the doctrine of nullification and were later used by pro-slavery Southerners to justify their actions. (Chpt 10).

18 V. The Election of 1800—Second American Revolution
A. Federalist chose John Adams and C.C. Pinckney (SC) to run against Republican Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. 1. Main issue was Alien and Sedition Acts. 2. Renewed English interference w/ American commerce was turning the public against the pro-British Federalists. 3. Growth in federal debt and increase in military expenditures were other issues. 4. There was plenty of mud-slinging: Jefferson was atheistic, immoral, and dangerous radical according to the Federalists. B. The election deadlocked w/ Jefferson and Burr tied in the electoral college. a. The House of Representatives would decide the presidency. 1. Federalists could block selection, but couldn’t elect one themselves. 2. Hamilton couldn’t stand Burr because of their old rivalry in New York politics (long memories). He will consider Jefferson the lesser of two evils. 3. Thus, he urged the Federalists to elect Jefferson, which they did on the thirty-sixth ballot. C. Twelfth Amendment (1804) 1. The elections of 1796 and 1800 disclosed a serious flaw in the procedure in choosing a president and VP. 2. 12th Amendment provided that candidates must stand for either one office or the other but not for both. Prevented a president and vice president from opposing parties serving together (unless by choice).

19 Jefferson, Madison and Monroe The Virginia Dynasty
I. Jefferson, The Man A. Belonged to the landed aristocracy. B. Owned slaves—can’t be proven he fathered any children by Sally Hemmings (probably brother). C. Created Monticello and introduced plants for improvement of Am. Agriculture. D. He was a Deist in religion. II. Jefferson, the Politician A. Influenced by English and French liberal philosophs (Locke and Rousseau). B. Father of Dec. of Independence. C. Anti-Federalist. D. Letter to Virginia Legislature will create doctrine of separation of church and state (not in the constitution!!!). E. Great faith in public education and free press and worked for a more humane penal code and advocated emancipation of slaves.

20 III. The Courts under Jefferson
F. Strict constitutionalist. G. Ideal gov’t was one run by well-informed, self-respecting farmer paradise. H. Began practice of sending written messages to Congress (State of the Union message—broken by Woodrow Wilson). I. Reduced the funding of the military (comes back to bite us in the War of ). J. War with Tripoli (Barbary Pirates) 1. European nations had paid tribute to the pirates of the Barbary states on the north coast of Africa. Federalist continued this policy. 2. In 1801 Tripoli, dissatisfied w. the amount of her tribute, declared war on the U.S. For 4 years American ships fought these pirates. peace is restored, but the American navy continued fighting to defend nation’s shipping against the pirate states until 1815 when Commodore Decature created a lasting peace. III. The Courts under Jefferson A. Judiciary Act of 1801 expanded federal judiciary and Adams tried to leave Jefferson a Federalist stacked Judiciary (midnight appointments— made after December 10, 1800).

21 IV. Land Legislation under Jefferson
B. Marbury v. Madison (describe the case) Government Notes IV. Land Legislation under Jefferson A. Harrison Land Law of 1800 1. Allowed a minimum purchase of 320 acres of Northwest Territory w/ down payment of only a fourth of the price. 2. Act of 1804 reduced the minimum purchase to 160 (helping Western settlers. 3. Act of 1820 reduced minimum size again to 80 acres and the minimum price to $1.25 an acre, but credit system abolished because of fraud in the West. 4. Liberal Land Act of 1800 gives Ohio enough population for state to be admitted in 1803. B. Yazoo Claimants 1. Land is sold in Georgia by a bribed legislature to four companies. 2. Subsequent legislature (1795) annulled the corrupt sale. 3. Land companies sue Georgia in Federal courts. 4. Georgia surrendered the land to the US gov’t w/ understanding that the Yazoo land claimants would be compensated. 5. Jefferson approved, but the “Quids” (states’ rights people in the Republican party) led by John Randolph would not vote for deal. 6. The payment was not voted until 1814 which Randolph left Congress.

22 C. Yazoo problem significant because:
1. 11th Amendment states that citizens of another state or foreign nation can’t sue a state in Federal Court. 2. Dispute delayed the settlement of western Georgia which became the states of Alabama and Mississippi. 3. Gave rise to the “Quids” (states’ rights people). 4. Calls attention to the ever present background influence of land speculation in America (knowing what is happening). D. Louisiana Purchase, 1803 1. Settlement of Kentucky, Tennessee and upper Ohio valley pioneer farmers in eastern half of the Mississippi basin made the control of lower Mississippi at New Orleans extremely important. 2. French transferred Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Paris of 1763, but retained an interest. 3. Napoleon Bonaparte will force Spain to give Louisiana back I the Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800). 4. When General Leclerc dies along with a great French force of yellow fever Bonaparte will make the decision to sell Louisiana to US because he needed money for his European campaigns. 5. Jefferson feared French reacquisition of Louisiana territory and send James Monroe to Paris to assist the resident minister, Robert Livingston, in acquiring New Orleans and Florida.

23 D. Louisiana Purchase, 1803 6. Monroe found Livingston settling details for the purchase of all of Louisiana (including New Orleans but not Florida) for $15 million. 7. Opportunity to good for Jefferson, and he breaks his own belief about not expanding presidential powers to acquire land. 8. Treaty is made and approved by Senate. 9. Jefferson immediately secured appropriation from Congress for the exploration of the region beyond the Mississippi. 10. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led their famous expedition up the Missouri River, across the continental divide in the Rockies, and down the Columbia River to the Pacific. Looking for quicker route to the Pacific Ocean. a.Sacagawea will be hired to help guide the expedition. Clark has his slave ??? 11. Zebulon M. Pike leads expedition to explore region of the upper Mississippi in 1805 and in 1806 makes famous exploration across the Great Plains to the southern Rockies and into New Mexico.

24 V. Aaron Burr and his Scandals
A. Federalist Secession Plot 1. Burr had been thrown aside by Jefferson as VP in 1804 and the Federalist turned to him to be elected Governor of New York, but Hamilton exposed the plot and secured Burr’s defeat. New England secession was not revived until War of 1812. B. Hamilton-Burr Duel 1. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel to avenge his honor. Hamilton didn’t aim to kill, Burr did—Hamilton died. C. Burr Expedition (1806) 1. Moves West to seek a new career. Tried to get Western states to separate from the Union and establish new gov’t w/ him as leader. 2. Approached England and Spain for aid. Convinced General James Wilkinson to join plot, but when Wilkinson saw plan was going to fail he gave the plot away. 3. Burr was arrested and taken to Richmond for trial. a. Chief Justice John Marshall, who favored Burr over Jefferson and found a way to get him off (stated Burr wasn’t present at the time Burr’s armed expedition began its journey down the Ohio). VI. British Maritime Policies prior to War of 1812 A. Britain tried to stop American ships from supplying Napoleon from French West Indies.

25 VI. British Maritime Policies—precursor to War of 1812
B. In the Essex decision (1805) Britain returned to their policy of 1756 to stop even the indirect shipment of French West Indian produce by way of U.S. Britain started seizing ships C. Britain, short of sailors, started seizing ships and actively practiced impressment of seamen including deserters, naturalized Americans and some native-born. 1. When the Leopard attacked the Chesapeake and 21 casualties took place, Jefferson could have declared war, but didn’t. D. Britain issued the Orders-in-Council which forbade neutral trade w/ France and her allies. VII. Jefferson’s Policies A. In 1806 Congress passed the Non-intercourse Act which forbid the importation of certain British goods. After Chesapeake incident Jefferson will push and Congress approved the Embargo Act which said that Americans couldn’t export their goods to foreign countries. B. After the British made good for the losses, and a failed effort to convince Americans to adhere to the embargo Jefferson as his last act lifted the embargo. C. The Nonintercourse Act (1809) forbid trade with Britain or France, but allowed it with all other countries.

26 C. The Nonintercourse Act (1809) forbid trade with Britain or France, but allowed it with all other countries. 1. British minister David Erskine negotiated an agreement w/ Americans to lift British regulations in return for the end of the American embargo, but London repudiated the agreement, and the Americans accused her of negotiating in bad faith. 2. Madison’s Macon’s Bill (1810) a. Replaces Nonintercourse Act. Reopened trade w/ both England and France. Napoleon lifts his regulations quickly, and the British will lift their Orders-in-Council to prevent a war with the United States—too late, Congress declared war against Britain before the news of the British concessions could arrive across the Atlantic. VIII. The War of 1812 A. Causes of the War 1. British enforcement of her rules of international law since (seizure of Am. ships and other interference w. Am. trade, impressment of American seamen). 2. Insolent attitude of British diplomats and British contempt for Am. people. 3. Native Am. attacks in West inspired by British (William Harrison fought an initial battle at Tippecanoe).

27 VIII. The War of 1812 A. Causes of the War 4. Americans hoped to annex Canada and Spanish Florida. i. War Hawks proclaimed that Canada could be taken by merely marching into it—not really. B. American Lack of Preparedness 1. In spite of popularity of war, U.S. was not ready. Am. hated national military service and preferred to enlist in poorly disciplined militia. 2. Financially, the nation was unprepared. Tariffs didn’t raise enough revenue (embargos) and Jefferson didn’t like internal revenue taxes. 3. New England’s opposition left the country divided. C. American Campaigns Against Canada 1. Military action began in 1812 w/ three separate invasions of Canada; none succeeded. General Hull was overcautious and panicked and surrendered at Detroit. 2. Niagara River invasion failed because the militia refused to follow the regular army across the border. 3. Invasion by General Dearborn’s at Lake Champlain failed because the militiamen refused to set foot on Canadian soil. 4. In 1813, William Henry Harrison was victorious at Lake Erie (Fort Malden) and at the Battle of the Thames (against Tecumseh—N.A. power was broken).

28 VIII. The War of 1812 D. The War in 1814 1. British entered American soil at five points. Americans stopped British at Niagara and Lake Champlain, but a raid led by British General Ross directed against Washington D.C. in August. They take Washington—Dolly Madison saves copy of Declaration of Ind. and portrait of Washington. Weather will stop the British—luckily. E. Jackson and New Orleans 1. General Andrew Jackson led Tennessee troops in a victory against the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in Alabama. Jackson was appointed commander of all American forces in the Southwest and ordered to New Orleans. 2. He will defeat 10,000 veterans of the Napoleonic campaigns by using his sharpshooters (battle takes place two weeks after peace treaty had been signed). F. New England and the War 1. Jefferson had offended the commercial interest of Federalist New England. Trade stoppages hurt their industries. New Englanders supplies the British and their states withheld their militia from the campaigns in Canada.

29 VIII. The War of 1812 2. Hartford Convention (1814) is a protest convention meant to state their grievances. They called for: 2/3 vote for declarations of war, embargoes, and the admission of new states, no counting of slaves for representation, and no successive presidents from the same state. G. The Treaty of Ghent 1. Negotiations began soon after the war began, but deadlocked on issue of impressment.By 1814 both sides were asking for extravagant and unacceptable demands. 2. Americans began to be more conciliatory when news of defeats came in (especially after fall of Washington). 3. When Napoleon surrendered in May 1814 Britain felt that they should end the war. 4. Treaty of Ghent is finally signed in December 1814 w/ no territorial changes or other concessions. H. Consequences of the War 1. War won British respect for the fighting ability of Americans. 2. American dislike of Britain was renewed, but maritime issues ceased. 3. Defeat of N.A. tribes opened the whole area east of Mississippi. 4. Return of peace in Europe left America free from distraction of war.

30 H. Consequences of the War
5. War increased the American spirit of nationalism and overcame disruptive forces of sectionalism. 6. Trade interruptions before and during the war forces a significant growth of American manufacturing.

31 Yazoo Claimants and the Eleventh Amendment
Instructions: Make sure you discuss the following areas: The sale of Western lands by bribed Georgia legislature in 1790 to four land companies in the East. The subsequent legislature (1795) annulling of the sale. The suing of the State of Georgia in Federal courts by the land speculators. Jefferson’s point of view on the matter. Talk about the “Quids” and their point of view (John Randolph). The Yazoo problem was significant because: produced 11th Amendment (explain), the dispute delayed the settlement of those parts of western Georgia which became the states of Alabama and Mississippi; It was one of the main issues giving rise to the Quids; In the case of Fletcher v. Peck the Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of business contracts by denying Georgia the right to unilaterally annul the contract of sale; it calls attention to the ever present background influence of land speculation in America

32 The War with Tripoli and the Barbary Pirates
Instructions: Make sure you discuss the following areas: European nations paying tribute to the pirates in the Barbary states. Where this took place. Federalist reaction to the paying of tributes. Reason for the confrontation in 1801. Length of battle. Peace treaty in 1805. Ending of conflict in 1815 (discuss Commodore Decatur)

33 The Judiciary Act of 1801 and Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Instructions: Make sure you discuss the following areas: Which presidents administration did the Judiciary Act of 1801 take place during? What did that president try and accomplish with the Act (midnight appointments—appointments made after Dec. 10, 1800)? Discuss the background and John Marshall’s opinion in the Supreme Court case. Consequence of the Judiciary Act of 1802 and Jefferson’s statement: “I did not remove the judges from the bench, but the bench from the judges.”

34 The Louisiana Purchase
Instructions: Make sure you discuss the following areas: Discuss the Revival and Abandonment of French ambitions in Louisiana (dealing w/ Spain). Treaty of SanIldefonso (1800) and Napoleon. Leclerc b. L’Ouventure and Napoleon’s response to failing to take the island of Santo Domingo. Jefferson and Monroe and how the deal was made and cost. Early exploration of Louisiana and reasons. Why the Louisiana Purchase was controversial for Jefferson and the Federalists (presidential powers). The reason’s for President Jefferson’s sponsorship of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the importance of that expedition.

35 The Role of Aaron Burr (Federalist Secession Plot, Hamilton Burr Duel (1804), The Burr Expedition (1806) Instructions: Make sure you discuss the following areas: Brief historical background of Burr. Burr vs. Hamilton background. The Federalist Secession Plot 1804 (New York and New England possible union w/ Canada). Hamilton-Burr Duel (1804) The Burr Expedition (1806) his plan to establish a new government in the West and General James Wilkinson’s betrayal to Burr.

36 Nonintercourse Act (Embargo Act)
Instructions: Make sure you discuss the following areas: Reasons for the Nonintercourse Act. The Chesapeake affair and its failure to help the situation. Effects of the Nonintercourse Act. Reasons for repeal of the Embargo Act. Madison’s response to the Nonintercourse Act 1809. Address Macon’s Bill No.2 (1810) and its consequences.

37 The War of 1812 Instructions:
Make sure you discuss the following areas: Causes of the War (4): British enforcement of her rules of international law since 1805; (2) The insolent attitude of British diplomats and British contempt for the American people; (3) Native American attacks sponsored by Britain in the West; (4) Hope of Americans to annex Canada and Spanish Florida (War Hawks). American lack of preparedness for war. American campaigns against Canada. The War in 1814. Jackson and New Orleans. War in New England and the Hartford Convention. The Treaty of Ghent Consequences of War: (Respect of British; Dislike of British increased; Defeat of Native American tribes opened area east of the Mississippi to settlement; return of peace in Europe; increased American spirit of nationalism and overcame sectionalism; Trade interruptions before and during the war forced a significant growth of American manufacturing.

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