Presentation on theme: "Outgoing President John Adams had issued William Marbury a commission as justice of the peace, but the new Secretary of State, James Madison, refused."— Presentation transcript:
Outgoing President John Adams had issued William Marbury a commission as justice of the peace, but the new Secretary of State, James Madison, refused to deliver it. Marbury then issued a writ of mandamus to obtain it. Chief Justice John Marshall said that the “writ of mandamus” was overstepping the power of the Constitutional and declared it unconstitutional. With his decision in Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall established the principle of judicial review. an important addition to the system of “checks and balances” created to prevent any one branch of the Federal Government from becoming too powerful.
Napoleon's original ambitions in Louisiana involved the creation of a new French empire centered on the Caribbean sugar trade. Thomas Jefferson was disturbed by Napoleon's plans to re-establish French colonies in America. With the possession of New Orleans, Napoleon could close the Mississippi to U.S. commerce at any time. Jefferson authorized Robert R. Livingston, U.S. Minister to France, to negotiate for the purchase of the City of New Orleans and free navigation of the river for U.S. commerce. However, due to a slave rebellion in Santo Domingo (present day Haiti), an island in the Caribbean, Napoleon changed his mind and not only sold the city of New Orleans, but all of Louisiana for less than five cents an acre! This 15 Million Dollar Land Purchase Doubled the size of the U.S. and turned Jefferson into a loose constructionists
President Thomas Jefferson commissioned Lewis to head an expedition to explore the newly- bought Louisiana Territory in order to further commerce (trade). Jefferson also wanted information on the plant and animal life of the American West. On their journey, with the assistance of Sacagawea, they developed good relationships with Native American peoples, discovered over 200 species of plants and animals and DID NOT find the Northwest Passage.
Embargo Act of 1807- Due to American Neutrality, the French and British continued to harass American ships. This act cut off all trade to and from American ports hoping to put economic pressure on the French and British. It backfired and hurt the American Economy It forbade the exporting and importing of all goods to or from Great Britain and France, or the lands they controlled. The act provided for resumption of trade with either country if it agreed to respect the rights of American shipping. It also failed and hurt the American economy.
Alexander Hamilton was a Federalist. Aaron Burr was a Republican. The men clashed repeatedly in the political arena. On July 11, 1804, Hamilton and Burr met on the dueling grounds at Weehawken, New Jersey, to fight the final skirmish of a long-lived political and personal battle. When the duel was over, Hamilton would be mortally wounded, and Burr would be wanted for murder.
The Barbary Pirates were a group of fighters who attacked American ships along the Barbary Coast of northern Africa in the early 1800’s. They were members of a handful of African states who at first signed treaties with the United States in which they promised to stop attacking American ships if they paid tribute (money for protection). However, they broke those treaties. The U.S. fought back with force. Both the Navy and the Marines won big victories, including one at Tripoli in 1805.
The seizure and searching, off the coast of Virginia, of the U.S. Ship Chesapeake in 1807 by the British HMS Leopard, whose commander suspected that British deserters might be aboard. The American commander refused to allow the British to come aboard. The British opened fire, killing 3 Americans and wounding 18. Four of the Chesapeake's crew were impressed. The incident was one of the causes of the War of 1812.