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Unit 3 Vocabulary New Nation.

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1 Unit 3 Vocabulary New Nation

2 Articles of Confederation
A document adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and approved by the states in 1781. This was the first law of the land for the new government of the United States Weaknesses: no executive, no courts, no taxing power

3 Daniel Shays’ Rebellion
A 1787 uprising of farmers that were angry at the Massachusetts state government because of debt and foreclosures, so they shut down the state courts by force Showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation because Massachusetts asked the federal government for help but they didn’t have the power to do anything

4 Northwest Ordinance A law passed in 1787 under the Articles of Confederation government Set up a plan for territories to become states and contributed to westward migration Plan encouraged new state constitutions to avoid slavery and include a plan for public education

5 Constitutional Convention
Founding fathers met at Pennsylvania State House in May 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, but ended up writing a whole new Constitution Major conflicts at the Constitution over the issues of representation in Congress and slavery had to be resolved through compromises

6 Great Compromise A compromise made at the Constitutional Convention to resolve the conflict between the Virginia Plan (large states) and New Jersey Plan (small states) Proposed a bicameral legislature with the House of Representatives, where representation is based on population and the Senate, where every state gets 2 representatives

7 3/5 Compromise A compromise between free states and slave states over whether or not slaves should be counted as part of the population for representation purposes in the House of Representatives Decided that slaves would count as 3/5 of a person (Out of every 5 slaves, 3 would count towards population)

8 U.S. Constitution America’s final law of the land, written at Constitutional Convention after the AOC failed because it was too weak Provided for a more powerful central government, but this power was limited by separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism

9 Popular Sovereignty The people have power in the government by voting to elect representatives This idea is the same as what Jefferson described as “consent of the governed” in the Declaration of Independence

10 Separation of Powers The powers of the national government are divided by the Constitution into three separate branches to prevent any one person or branch from having too much power The legislative branch (Congress) makes the laws, executive branch (President) enforces the laws, and judicial branch (courts) interprets the laws. This comes from French philosopher Montesquieu

11 Checks and Balances Principle of the Constitution that gives each branch of government the authority to limit the power of the other two branches Examples: Congress passes laws, president can veto them and Supreme court can rule them unconstitutional President appoints Supreme Court justices and Congress approves them; Congress can impeach the president

12 Federalism A system in which power is shared between different levels of government For example, in the U.S. we have the federal (national) government, state governments, and local governments

13 Judicial Review The Supreme Court has the power to declare laws unconstitutional This authority is a part of the system of checks and balances

14 Limited Government Government is not all powerful
The Constitution limits the power of the federal government through separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism and the Bill of Rights

15 Federalists Group of political leaders that supported the new U.S. Constitution in the debate over ratification (approving and adopting the document) Wanted a strong federal government and were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison Federalist Papers = a collection of essays written to convince Americans to approve the Constitution

16 Anti-Federalists Group of political leaders led by Thomas Jefferson that were against ratification of the new Constitution They wanted a weaker federal government and strong state governments and refused to ratify without a Bill of Rights The Anti-Federalist Papers = written to point out problems in the Constitution

17 Bill of Rights First 10 amendments to the Constitution
Anti-Federalists insisted on adding these before ratification Designed to protectindividual rights (#1-9) and states’ rights (#10) from the power of the national government

18 Washington’s Presidency
Important because he set precedents for how the President would conduct himself and how the executive branch would work Showed the strength of the new federal government in Whiskey Rebellion, said America should not get involved in European affairs, and warned against factions/political parties

19 Whiskey Rebellion Farmers in Pennsylvania refused to pay a tax put on whiskey by the federal government President Washington ordered the militia to go an and stop the rebellion, and the rebels scattered without a fight Proved that the federal government was now strong enough under the new Constitution to handle a crisis

20 Non-Intervention in Europe
The people of France asked Americans to help in their revolution to overthrow the king of France Washington thought America needed to stay out of European problems and issued the “Declaration of Neutrality”

21 Adams’ Presidency American diplomats effectively resolve the XYZ Affair with the French, who tried to force the U.S. to pay bribe or tribute money to continue to deal with France Adams lost public support because of Alien and Sedition Acts that set fines and jail time for anyone speaking out against the government (violation of 1st amendment)

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